Connecticut State Organizer.

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migbest's picture

Hi Pat lets talk tomorrow on what I have sent so far, I talked to Dan he said the documents for Saturday look good have you reviewed them as well. I will be printing them tomorrow.

Patricia Sachs's picture

Documents look good. Thank you so much. Looking forward to next meeting.

migbest's picture

Constitution of the State of Connecticut

CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT

PREAMBLE.

The People of Connecticut acknowledging with gratitude, the good providence of God, in having permitted them to enjoy a free government; do, in order more effectually to define, secure, and perpetuate the liberties, rights and privileges which they have derived from their ancestors; hereby, after a careful consideration and revision, ordain and establish the following constitution and form of civil government.

ARTICLE FIRST.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS

That the great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established,

WE DECLARE:

SEC. 1. All men when they form a social compact, are equal in rights; and no man or set of men are entitled to exclusive public emoluments or privileges from the community.

SEC. 2. All political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of government in such manner as they may think expedient.

SEC. 3. The exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall forever be free to all persons in the state; provided, that the right hereby declared and established, shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or to justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the state.

SEC. 4. Every citizen may freely speak, write and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.

SEC. 5. No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press.

SEC. 6. In all prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence, and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the facts, under the direction of the court.

SEC. 7. The people shall be secure in their persons, houses, papers and possessions from unreasonable searches or seizures; and no warrant to search any place, or to seize any person or things, shall issue without describing them as nearly as may be, nor without probable cause supported by oath or affirmation.

SEC. 8. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to be heard by himself and by counsel; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process to obtain witnesses in his behalf; to be released on bail upon sufficient security, except in capital offenses, where the proof is evident or the presumption great; and in all prosecutions by indictment or information, to a speedy, public trial by an impartial jury. No person shall be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor shall excessive bail be required nor excessive fines imposed. No person shall be held to answer for any crime, punishable by death or life imprisonment, unless on a presentment or an indictment of a grand jury, except in the armed forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger.

(Sec. 8 amended in 1982. See Art. XVII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 9. No person shall be arrested, detained or punished, except in cases clearly warranted by law.

SEC. 10. All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done to him in his person, property or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, and right and justice administered without sale, denial or delay.

SEC. 11. The property of no person shall be taken for public use, without just compensation therefor.

SEC. 12. The privileges of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, when in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it; nor in any case, but by the legislature.

SEC. 13. No person shall be attainted of treason or felony, by the legislature.

SEC. 14. The citizens have a right, in a peaceable manner, to assemble for their common good, and to apply to those invested with the powers of government, for redress of grievances, or other proper purposes, by petition, address or remonstrance.

SEC. 15. Every citizen has a right to bear arms in defense of himself and the state.

SEC. 16. The military shall, in all cases, and at all times, be in strict subordination to the civil power.

SEC. 17. No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

SEC. 18. No hereditary emoluments, privileges or honors, shall ever be granted, or conferred in this state.

SEC. 19. The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate.

(Sec. 19 amended in 1972. See Art. IV of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 20. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the law nor be subjected to segregation or discrimination in the exercise or enjoyment of his civil or political rights because of religion, race, color, ancestry or national origin.

(Sec. 20 amended in 1974. See Art. V of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

(Sec. 20 amended in 1984. See Art. XXI of the Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE SECOND.*
OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS.

The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate magistracy, to wit, those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another.

*(ARTICLE SECOND amended in 1982. See Art. XVIII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE THIRD.
OF THE LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT.

SEC. 1. The legislative power of the state shall be vested in two distinct houses or branches; the one to be styled the senate, the other the house of representatives, and both together the general assembly. The style of their laws shall be: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Assembly convened.

SEC. 2. There shall be a regular session of the general assembly to commence on the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding the election of its members, and at such other times as the general assembly shall judge necessary; but the person administering the office of governor may, on special emergencies, convene the general assembly at any other time. All regular and special sessions of the general assembly shall be held at Hartford, but the person administering the office of governor may, in case of special emergency, convene the assembly at any other place in the state. The general assembly shall adjourn each regular session not later than the first Wednesday after the first Monday in June following its organization and shall adjourn each special session upon completion of its business. If any bill passed by any regular or special session or any appropriation item described in Section 16 of Article Fourth has been disapproved by the governor prior to its adjournment, and has not been reconsidered by the assembly, or is so disapproved after such adjournment, the secretary of the state shall reconvene the general assembly on the second Monday after the last day on which the governor is authorized to transmit or has transmitted every bill to the secretary with his objections pursuant to Section 15 of Article Fourth of this constitution, whichever occurs first; provided if such Monday falls on a legal holiday the general assembly shall be reconvened on the next following day. The reconvened session shall be for the sole purpose of reconsidering and, if the assembly so desires, repassing such bills. The general assembly shall adjourn sine die not later than three days following its reconvening.

(Sec. 2 amended in 1970. See Art. III of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 3. The senate shall consist of not less than thirty and not more than fifty members, each of whom shall be an elector residing in the senatorial district from which he is elected. Each senatorial district shall be contiguous as to territory and shall elect no more than one senator.

(Sec. 3 amended in 1970. See Art. II, Sec. 1 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 4. The house of representatives shall consist of not less than one hundred twenty-five and not more than two hundred twenty-five members, each of whom shall be an elector residing in the assembly district from which he is elected. Each assembly district shall be contiguous as to territory and shall elect no more than one representative. For the purpose of forming assembly districts no town shall be divided except for the purpose of forming assembly districts wholly within the town.

(Sec. 4 amended in 1970. See Art. II, Sec. 2 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 5. The establishment of districts in the general assembly shall be consistent with federal constitutional standards.

(Sec. 5 amended in 1980. See Art. XVI, Sec. 1 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 6. a. The assembly and senatorial districts as now established by law shall continue until the regular session of the general assembly next after the completion of the next census of the United States. Such general assembly shall, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, enact such plan of districting as is necessary to preserve a proper apportionment of representation in accordance with the principles recited in this article. Thereafter the general assembly shall decennially at its next regular session following the completion of the census of the United States, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, enact such plan of districting as is necessary in accordance with the provisions of this article.

b. If the general assembly fails to enact a plan of districting by the first day of the April next following the completion of the decennial census of the United States, the governor shall forthwith appoint a commission consisting of the eight members designated by the president pro tempore of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, the minority leader of the senate and the minority leader of the house of representatives, each of whom shall designate two members of the commission, provided that there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the commission in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house.

c. The commission shall proceed to consider the alteration of districts in accordance with the principles recited in this article and it shall submit a plan of districting to the secretary of the state by the first day of the July next succeeding the appointment of its members. No plan shall be submitted to the secretary unless it is certified by at least six members of the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law.

d. If by the first day of the July next succeeding the appointment of its members the commission fails to submit a plan of districting, a board of three persons shall forthwith be empaneled. The speaker of the house of representatives and the minority leader of the house of representatives shall each designate, as one member of the board, a judge of the superior court of the state, provided that there are members of no more than two political parties in the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in the house of representatives, all members belonging to the parties other than that of the speaker shall select one of their number, who shall then designate, as one member of the board, a judge of the superior court of the state, in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of the house of representatives. The two members of the board so designated shall select an elector of the state as the third member.

e. The board shall proceed to consider the alteration of districts in accordance with the principles recited in this article and shall, by the first day of the October next succeeding its selection, submit a plan of districting to the secretary. No plan shall be submitted to the secretary unless it is certified by at least two members of the board. Upon receiving such plan, the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have full force of law.

(Sec. 6, subsections a through e, amended in 1976. See Art. XII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut; amended in 1980. See Art. XVI, Sec. 2 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 7. The treasurer, secretary of the state, and comptroller shall canvass publicly the votes for senators and representatives. The person in each senatorial district having the greatest number of votes for senator shall be declared to be duly elected for such district, and the person in each assembly district having the greatest number of votes for representative shall be declared to be duly elected for such district. The general assembly shall provide by law the manner in which an equal and the greatest number of votes for two or more persons so voted for for senator or representative shall be resolved. The return of votes, and the result of the canvass, shall be submitted to the house of representatives and to the senate on the first day of the session of the general assembly. Each house shall be the final judge of the election returns and qualifications of its own members.

SEC. 8. A general election for members of the general assembly shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, biennially, in the even-numbered years. The general assembly shall have power to enact laws regulating and prescribing the order and manner of voting for such members, for filling vacancies in either the house of representatives or the senate, and providing for the election of representatives or senators at some time subsequent to the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in all cases when it shall so happen that the electors in any district shall fail on that day to elect a representative or senator.

SEC. 9. At all elections for members of the general assembly the presiding officers in the several towns shall receive the votes of the electors, and count and declare them in open meeting. The presiding officers shall make and certify duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each. One list shall be delivered within three days to the town clerk, and within ten days after such meeting, the other shall be delivered under seal to the secretary of the state.

SEC. 10. The members of the general assembly shall hold their offices from the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding their election until the Wednesday after the first Monday of the third January next succeeding their election, and until their successors are duly qualified.

SEC. 11. No member of the general assembly shall, during the term for which he is elected, hold or accept any appointive position or office in the judicial or executive department of the state government, or in the courts of the political subdivisions of the state, or in the government of any county. No member of congress, no person holding any office under the authority of the United States and no person holding any office in the judicial or executive department of the state government or in the government of any county shall be a member of the general assembly during his continuance in such office.

SEC. 12. The house of representatives, when assembled, shall choose a speaker, clerk and other officers. The senate shall choose a president pro tempore, clerk and other officers, except the president. A majority of each house shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may prescribe.

SEC. 13. Each house shall determine the rules of its own proceedings, and punish members for disorderly conduct, and, with the consent of two-thirds, expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause; and shall have all other powers necessary for a branch of the legislature of a free and independent state.

SEC. 14. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and publish the same when required by one-fifth of its members, except such parts as in the judgment of a majority require secrecy. The yeas and nays of the members of either house shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journals.

SEC. 15. The senators and representatives shall, in all cases of civil process, be privileged from arrest, during any session of the general assembly, and for four days before the commencement and after the termination of any session thereof. And for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

SEC. 16. The debates of each house shall be public, except on such occasions as in the opinion of the house may require secrecy.

SEC. 17. The salary of the members of the general assembly and the transportation expenses of its members in the performance of their legislative duties shall be determined by law.

(Sec. 18 added in 1992. See Art. XXVIII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE FOURTH.
OF THE EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.

SEC. 1. A general election for governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of the state, treasurer and comptroller shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1966, and quadrennially thereafter.

(Sec. 1 amended in 1970. See Art. I of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 2. Such officers shall hold their respective offices from the Wednesday following the first Monday of the January next succeeding their election until the Wednesday following the first Monday of the fifth January succeeding their election and until their successors are duly qualified.

SEC. 3. In the election of governor and lieutenant-governor, voting for such offices shall be as a unit. The name of no candidate for either office, nominated by a political party or by petition, shall appear on the voting machine ballot labels except in conjunction with the name of the candidate for the other office.

SEC. 4. At the meetings of the electors in the respective towns held quadrennially as herein provided for the election of state officers, the presiding officers shall receive the votes and shall count and declare the same in the presence of the electors. The presiding officers shall make and certify duplicate lists of the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each. One list shall be delivered within three days to the town clerk, and within ten days after such meeting, the other shall be delivered under seal to the secretary of the state. The votes so delivered shall be counted, canvassed and declared by the treasurer, secretary, and comptroller, within the month of November. The vote for treasurer shall be counted, canvassed and declared by the secretary and comptroller only; the vote for secretary shall be counted, canvassed and declared by the treasurer and comptroller only; and the vote for comptroller shall be counted, canvassed and declared by the treasurer and secretary only. A fair list of the persons and number of votes given for each, together with the returns of the presiding officers, shall be, by the treasurer, secretary and comptroller, made and laid before the general assembly, then next to be held, on the first day of the session thereof. In the election of governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary, treasurer, comptroller and attorney general, the person found upon the count by the treasurer, secretary and comptroller in the manner herein provided, to be made and announced before December fifteenth of the year of the election, to have received the greatest number of votes for each of such offices, respectively, shall be elected thereto; provided, if the election of any of them shall be contested as provided by statute, and if such a contest shall proceed to final judgment, the person found by the court to have received the greatest number of votes shall be elected. If two or more persons shall be found upon the count of the treasurer, secretary and comptroller to have received an equal and the greatest number of votes for any of said offices, and the election is not contested, the general assembly on the second day of its session shall hold a joint convention of both houses, at which, without debate, a ballot shall be taken to choose such officer from those persons who received such a vote; and the balloting shall continue on that or subsequent days until one of such persons is chosen by a majority vote of those present and voting. The general assembly shall have power to enact laws regulating and prescribing the order and manner of voting for such officers. The general assembly shall by law prescribe the manner in which all questions concerning the election of a governor or lieutenant-governor shall be determined.

SEC. 5. The supreme executive power of the state shall be vested in the governor. No person who is not an elector of the state, and who has not arrived at the age of thirty years, shall be eligible.

SEC. 6. The lieutenant-governor shall possess the same qualifications as are herein prescribed for the governor.

SEC. 7. The compensations of the governor and lieutenant-governor shall be established by law, and shall not be varied so as to take effect until after an election, which shall next succeed the passage of the law establishing such compensations.

SEC. 8. The governor shall be captain general of the militia of the state, except when called into the service of the United States.

SEC. 9. He may require information in writing from the officers in the executive department, on any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices.

SEC. 10. The governor, in case of a disagreement between the two houses of the general assembly, respecting the time of adjournment, may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper, not beyond the day of the next stated session.

SEC. 11. He shall, from time to time, give to the general assembly, information of the state of the government, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall deem expedient.

SEC. 12. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.

SEC. 13. The governor shall have power to grant reprieves after conviction, in all cases except those of impeachment, until the end of the next session of the general assembly, and no longer.

SEC. 14. All commissions shall be in the name and by authority of the state of Connecticut; shall be sealed with the state seal, signed by the governor, and attested by the secretary of the state.

SEC. 15. Each bill which shall have passed both houses of the general assembly shall be presented to the governor. Bills may be presented to the governor after the adjournment of the general assembly, and the general assembly may prescribe the time and method of performing all ministerial acts necessary or incidental to the administration of this section. If the governor shall approve a bill, he shall sign and transmit it to the secretary of the state, but if he shall disapprove, he shall transmit it to the secretary with his objections, and the secretary shall thereupon return the bill with the governor's objections to the house in which it originated. After the objections shall have been entered on its journal, such house shall proceed to reconsider the bill. If, after such reconsideration, that house shall again pass it, but by the approval of at least two-thirds of its members, it shall be sent with the objections to the other house, which shall also reconsider it. If approved by at least two-thirds of the members of the second house, it shall be a law and be transmitted to the secretary; but in such case the votes of each house shall be determined by yeas and nays and the names of the members voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. In case the governor shall not transmit the bill to the secretary, either with his approval or with his objections, within five calendar days, Sundays and legal holidays excepted, after the same shall have been presented to him, it shall be a law at the expiration of that period; except that, if the general assembly shall then have adjourned any regular or special session, the bill shall be a law unless the governor shall, within fifteen calendar days after the same has been presented to him, transmit it to the secretary with his objections, in which case it shall not be a law unless such bill is reconsidered and repassed by the general assembly by at least a two-thirds vote of the members of each house of the general assembly at the time of its reconvening.

(See Art. III of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 16. The governor shall have power to disapprove of any item or items of any bill making appropriations of money embracing distinct items while at the same time approving the remainder of the bill, and the part or parts of the bill so approved shall become effective and the item or items of appropriations so disapproved shall not take effect unless the same are separately reconsidered and repassed in accordance with the rules and limitations prescribed for the passage of bills over the executive veto. In all cases in which the governor shall exercise the right of disapproval hereby conferred he shall append to the bill at the time of signing it a statement of the item or items disapproved, together with his reasons for such disapproval, and transmit the bill and such appended statement to the secretary of the state. If the general assembly be then in session he shall forthwith cause a copy of such statement to be delivered to the house in which the bill originated for reconsideration of the disapproved items in conformity with the rules prescribed for legislative action in respect to bills which have received executive disapproval.

SEC. 17. The lieutenant-governor shall by virtue of his office, be president of the senate, and have, when in committee of the whole, a right to debate, and when the senate is equally divided, to give the casting vote.

SEC. 18. In case of the death, resignation, refusal to serve or removal from office of the governor, the lieutenant-governor shall, upon taking the oath of office of governor, be governor of the state until another is chosen at the next regular election for governor and is duly qualified. In case of the inability of the governor to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office, or in case of his impeachment or of his absence from the state, the lieutenant-governor shall exercise the powers and authority and perform the duties appertaining to the office of governor until the disability is removed or, if the governor has been impeached, he is acquitted or, if absent, he has returned.

(Sec. 18 amended in 1984. See Art. XXII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 19. If the lieutenant-governor succeeds to the office of governor, or if the lieutenant-governor dies, resigns, refuses to serve or is removed from office, the president pro tempore of the senate shall, upon taking the oath of office of lieutenant-governor, be lieutenant-governor of the state until another is chosen at the next regular election for lieutenant-governor and is duly qualified. Within fifteen days of the administration of such oath the senate, if the general assembly is in session, shall elect one of its members president pro tempore. In case of the inability of the lieutenant-governor to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office or in case of his impeachment or absence from the state, the president pro tempore of the senate shall exercise the powers and authority and perform the duties appertaining to the office of lieutenant-governor until the disability is removed or, if the lieutenant-governor has been impeached, he is acquitted or, if absent, he has returned.

SEC. 20. If, while the general assembly is not in session, there is a vacancy in the office of president pro tempore of the senate, the secretary of the state shall within fifteen days convene the senate for the purpose of electing one of its members president pro tempore.

SEC. 21. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the governor, the governor-elect shall have died or shall have failed to qualify, the lieutenant-governor-elect, after taking the oath of office of lieutenant-governor, may qualify as governor, and, upon so qualifying, shall become governor. The general assembly may by law provide for the case in which neither the governor-elect nor the lieutenant-governor-elect shall have qualified, by declaring who shall, in such event, act as governor or the manner in which the person who is so to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a governor or a lieutenant-governor shall have qualified.

SEC. 22. The treasurer shall receive all monies belonging to the state, and disburse the same only as he may be directed by law. He shall pay no warrant, or order for the disbursement of public money, until the same has been registered in the office of the comptroller.

SEC. 23. The secretary of the state shall have the safe keeping and custody of the public records and documents, and particularly of the acts, resolutions and orders of the general assembly, and record the same; and perform all such duties as shall be prescribed by law. He shall be the keeper of the seal of the state, which shall not be altered.

SEC. 24. The comptroller shall adjust and settle all public accounts and demands, except grants and orders of the general assembly. He shall prescribe the mode of keeping and rendering all public accounts. He shall, ex officio, be one of the auditors of the accounts of the treasurer. The general assembly may assign to him other duties in relation to his office, and to that of the treasurer, and shall prescribe the manner in which his duties shall be performed.

SEC. 25. Sheriffs shall be elected in the several counties, on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, l966, and quadrennially thereafter, for the term of four years, commencing on the first day of June following their election. They shall become bound with sufficient sureties to the treasurer of the state, for the faithful discharge of the duties of their office. They shall be removable by the general assembly. In case the sheriff of any county shall die or resign, or shall be removed from office by the general assembly, the governor may fill the vacancy occasioned thereby, until the same shall be filled by the general assembly.

(Sec. 25 amended in 2000. See Art. XXX of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 26. A statement of all receipts, payments, funds, and debts of the state, shall be published from time to time, in such manner and at such periods, as shall be prescribed by law.

(New Section added in 1984. See Art. XXIII of Amendments to the Constitution of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE FIFTH.*
OF THE JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT.

SEC. 1. The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, a superior court, and such lower courts as the general assembly shall, from time to time, ordain and establish. The powers and jurisdiction of these courts shall be defined by law.

(Sec. 1 amended in 1982. See Art. XX. Sec. 1 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 2. The judges of the supreme court and of the superior court shall, upon nomination by the governor, be appointed by the general assembly in such manner as shall by law be prescribed. They shall hold their offices for the term of eight years, but may be removed by impeachment. The governor shall also remove them on the address of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly.

(See Art. XI of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)
(Sec. 2 amended in 1982. See Art. XX, Sec. 2 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 3. Judges of the lower courts shall, upon nomination by the governor, be appointed by the general assembly in such manner as shall by law be prescribed, for terms of four years.

SEC. 4. Judges of probate shall be elected by the electors residing in their respective districts on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1966, and quadrennially thereafter, and shall hold office for four years from and after the Wednesday after the first Monday of the next succeeding January.

SEC. 5. Justices of the peace for the several towns in the state shall be elected by the electors in such towns; and the time and manner of their election, the number for each town, the period for which they shall hold their offices and their jurisdiction shall be prescribed by law.

(Sec. 5 repealed in 1974. See Art. VIII, Sec. 1 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 6. No judge or justice of the peace shall be eligible to hold his office after he shall arrive at the age of seventy years, except that a chief justice or judge of the supreme court, a judge of the superior court, or a judge of the court of common pleas, who has attained the age of seventy years and has become a state referee may exercise, as shall be prescribed by law, the powers of the superior court or court of common pleas on matters referred to him as a state referee.

(Sec. 6 amended in 1974. See Art. VIII, Sec. 2 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

*(Art. Fifth amended in 1976. See Art. XI of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE SIXTH.*
OF THE QUALIFICATIONS OF ELECTORS.

SEC. 1. Every citizen of the United States who has attained the age of twenty-one years, who has resided in the town in which he offers himself to be admitted to the privileges of an elector at least six months next preceding the time he so offers himself, who is able to read in the English language any article of the constitution or any section of the statutes of the state, and who sustains a good moral character, shall, on his taking such oath as may be prescribed by law, be an elector.

(Sec. 1. amended in 1976. See Art. IX of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut. See Art. XXVI of Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America.)

SEC. 2. The qualifications of electors as set forth in Section 1 of this article shall be decided at such times and in such manner as may be prescribed by law.

SEC. 3. The general assembly shall by law prescribe the offenses on conviction of which the privileges of an elector shall be forfeited and the conditions on which and methods by which such rights may be restored.

(Sec. 3 amended in 1974. See Art. VII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 4. Laws shall be made to support the privilege of free suffrage, prescribing the manner of regulating and conducting meetings of the electors, and prohibiting, under adequate penalties, all undue influence therein, from power, bribery, tumult and other improper conduct.

SEC. 5. In all elections of officers of the state, or members of the general assembly, the votes of the electors shall be by ballot, either written or printed, except that voting machines or other mechanical devices for voting may be used in all elections in the state, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. The right of secret voting shall be preserved. At every election where candidates are listed by party designation and where voting machines or other mechanical devices are used, each elector shall be able at his option to vote for candidates for office under a single party designation by operating a straight ticket device, or to vote for candidates individually after first operating a straight ticket device, or to vote for candidates individually without first operating a straight ticket device.

(Sec. 5 amended in 1986. See Art. XXIV of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 6. At all elections of officers of the state, or members of the general assembly, the electors shall be privileged from arrest, during their attendance upon, and going to, and returning from the same, on any civil process.

SEC. 7. The general assembly may provide by law for voting in the choice of any officer to be elected or upon any question to be voted on at an election by qualified voters of the state who are unable to appear at the polling place on the day of election because of absence from the city or town of which they are inhabitants or because of sickness, or physical disability or because the tenets of their religion forbid secular activity.

SEC. 8. The general assembly may provide by law for the admission as electors in absentia of members of the armed forces, the United States merchant marine, members of religious or welfare groups or agencies attached to and serving with the armed forces and civilian employees of the United States, and the spouses and dependents of such persons.

(Sec. 8 amended in 1992. See Art. XXVII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 9. Any person admitted as an elector in any town shall, if he removes to another town, have the privileges of an elector in such other town after residing therein for six months. The general assembly shall prescribe by law the manner in which evidence of the admission of an elector and of the duration of his current residence shall be furnished to the town to which he removes.

(Sec. 9 repealed in 1980. See Art. XIII of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 10. Every elector shall be eligible to any office in the state, except in cases provided for in this constitution.

(Sec. 10 amended in 1970. See Art. II, Sec. 3 of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

*(Art. Sixth amended in 1976. See Art. X of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE SEVENTH.
OF RELIGION.

It being the right of all men to worship the Supreme Being, the Great Creator and Preserver of the Universe, and to render that worship in a mode consistent with the dictates of their consciences, no person shall by law be compelled to join or support, nor be classed or associated with, any congregation, church or religious association. No preference shall be given by law to any religious society or denomination in the state. Each shall have and enjoy the same and equal powers, rights and privileges, and may support and maintain the ministers or teachers of its society or denomination, and may build and repair houses for public worship.

ARTICLE EIGHTH.
OF EDUCATION.

SEC. 1. There shall always be free public elementary and secondary schools in the state. The general assembly shall implement this principle by appropriate legislation.

SEC. 2. The state shall maintain a system of higher education, including The University of Connecticut, which shall be dedicated to excellence in higher education. The general assembly shall determine the size, number, terms and method of appointment of the governing boards of The University of Connecticut and of such constituent units or coordinating bodies in the system as from time to time may be established.

SEC. 3. The charter of Yale College, as modified by agreement with the corporation thereof, in pursuance of an act of the general assembly, passed in May, 1792, is hereby confirmed.

SEC. 4. The fund, called the SCHOOL FUND, shall remain a perpetual fund, the interest of which shall be inviolably appropriated to the support and encouragement of the public schools throughout the state, and for the equal benefit of all the people thereof. The value and amount of said fund shall be ascertained in such manner as the general assembly may prescribe, published, and recorded in the comptroller's office; and no law shall ever be made, authorizing such fund to be diverted to any other use than the encouragement and support of public schools, among the several school societies, as justice and equity shall require.

ARTICLE NINTH.
OF IMPEACHMENTS.

SEC. 1. The house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeaching.

SEC. 2. All impeachments shall be tried by the senate. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of at least two-thirds of the members present. When the governor is impeached, the chief justice shall preside.

SEC. 3. The governor, and all other executive and judicial officers, shall be liable to impeachment; but judgments in such cases shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit under the state. The party convicted, shall, nevertheless, be liable and subject to indictment, trial and punishment according to law.

SEC. 4. Treason against the state shall consist only in levying war against it, or adhering to its enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason, unless on the testimony of at least two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court. No conviction of treason, or attainder, shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture.

ARTICLE TENTH.
OF HOME RULE.

SEC. 1. The general assembly shall by general law delegate such legislative authority as from time to time it deems appropriate to towns, cities and boroughs relative to the powers, organization, and form of government of such political subdivisions. The general assembly shall from time to time by general law determine the maximum terms of office of the various town, city and borough elective offices. After July 1, 1969, the general assembly shall enact no special legislation relative to the powers, organization, terms of elective offices or form of government of any single town, city or borough, except as to (a) borrowing power, (b) validating acts, and (c) formation, consolidation or dissolution of any town, city or borough, unless in the delegation of legislative authority by general law the general assembly shall have failed to prescribe the powers necessary to effect the purpose of such special legislation.

SEC. 2. The general assembly may prescribe the methods by which towns, cities and boroughs may establish regional governments and the methods by which towns, cities, boroughs and regional governments may enter into compacts. The general assembly shall prescribe the powers, organization, form, and method of dissolution of any government so established.

ARTICLE ELEVENTH.
GENERAL PROVISIONS.

SEC. 1. Members of the general assembly, and all officers, executive and judicial, shall, before they enter on the duties of their respective offices, take the following oath or affirmation, to wit:

You do solemnly swear (or affirm, as the case may be) that you will support the constitution of the United States, and the constitution of the state of Connecticut, so long as you continue a citizen thereof; and that you will faithfully discharge, according to law, the duties of the office of...........to the best of your abilities. So help you God.

SEC. 2. Neither the general assembly nor any county, city, borough, town or school district shall have power to pay or grant any extra compensation to any public officer, employee, agent or servant, or increase the compensation of any public officer or employee, to take effect during the continuance in office of any person whose salary might be increased thereby, or increase the pay or compensation of any public contractor above the amount specified in the contract.

(Sec. 2 amended in 1982. See Art. XIX of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 3. In order to insure continuity in operation of state and local governments in a period of emergency resulting from disaster caused by enemy attack, the general assembly shall provide by law for the prompt and temporary succession to the powers and duties of all public offices, the incumbents of which may become unavailable for carrying on their powers and duties.

SEC. 4. Claims against the state shall be resolved in such manner as may be provided by law.

SEC. 5. The rights and duties of all corporations shall remain as if this constitution had not been adopted; with the exception of such regulations and restrictions as are contained in this constitution. All laws not contrary to, or inconsistent with, the provisions of this constitution shall remain in force, until they shall expire by their own limitation, or shall be altered or repealed by the general assembly, in pursuance of this constitution. The validity of all bonds, debts, contracts, as well of individuals as of bodies corporate, or the state, of all suits, actions, or rights of action, both in law and equity, shall continue as if no change had taken place. All officers filling any office by election or appointment shall continue to exercise the duties thereof, according to their respective commissions or appointments, until their offices shall have been abolished or their successors selected and qualified in accordance with this constitution or the laws enacted pursuant thereto.

ARTICLE TWELFTH.*
OF AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION.

Amendments to this constitution may be proposed by any member of the senate or house of representatives. An amendment so proposed, approved upon roll call by a yea vote of at least a majority, but by less than three-fourths, of the total membership of each house, shall be published with the laws which may have been passed at the same session and be continued to the regular session of the general assembly elected at the general election to be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in the next even-numbered year. An amendment so proposed, approved upon roll call by a yea vote of at least three-fourths of the total membership of each house, or any amendment which, having been continued from the previous general assembly, is again approved upon roll call by a yea vote of at least a majority of the total membership of each house, shall, by the secretary of the state, be transmitted to the town clerk in each town in the state, whose duty it shall be to present the same to the electors thereof for their consideration at the general election to be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in the next even-numbered year. If it shall appear, in a manner to be provided by law, that a majority of the electors present and voting on such amendment at such election shall have approved such amendment, the same shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution. Electors voting by absentee ballot under the provisions of the statutes shall be considered to be present and voting.

*(Art. Twelfth amended in 1974. See Art. VI of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE THIRTEENTH.
OF CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS.

SEC. 1. The general assembly may, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the total membership of each house, provide for the convening of a constitutional convention to amend or revise the constitution of the state not earlier than ten years from the date of convening any prior convention.

SEC. 2. The question "Shall there be a Constitutional Convention to amend or revise the Constitution of the State?" shall be submitted to all the electors of the state at the general election held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November in the even-numbered year next succeeding the expiration of a period of twenty years from the date of convening of the last convention called to revise or amend the constitution of the state, including the Constitutional Convention of 1965, or next succeeding the expiration of a period of twenty years from the date of submission of such a question to all electors of the state, whichever date shall last occur. If a majority of the electors voting on the question shall signify "yes", the general assembly shall provide for such convention as provided in Section 3 of this article.

SEC. 3. In providing for the convening of a constitutional convention to amend or revise the constitution of the state the general assembly shall, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the total membership of each house, prescribe by law the manner of selection of the membership of such convention, the date of convening of such convention, which shall be not later than one year from the date of the roll call vote under Section 1 of this article or one year from the date of the election under Section 2 of this article, as the case may be, and the date for final adjournment of such convention.

SEC. 4. Proposals of any constitutional convention to amend or revise the constitution of the state shall be submitted to all the electors of the state not later than two months after final adjournment of the convention, either as a whole or in such parts and with such alternatives as the convention may determine. Any proposal of the convention to amend or revise the constitution of the state submitted to such electors in accordance with this section and approved by a majority of such electors voting on the question shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution. Such proposals when so approved shall take effect thirty days after the date of the vote thereon unless otherwise provided in the proposal.

ARTICLE FOURTEENTH.
OF THE EFFECTIVE DATE OF THIS CONSTITUTION.

This proposed constitution, submitted by the Constitutional Convention of 1965, shall become the constitution of the state of Connecticut upon approval by the people and proclamation by the governor as provided by law.

Approved at referendum on December 14, 1965; proclaimed by the Governor as adopted on December 30, 1965.

AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION
OF THE STATE OF CONNECTICUT

ARTICLE I.

Section 1 of article fourth of the constitution is amended to read as follows: A general election for governor, lieutenant-governor, secretary of the state, treasurer, comptroller and attorney general shall be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November, 1974, and quadrennially thereafter.

Adopted November 25, 1970.

ARTICLE II.

SEC. 1. Section 3 of article third of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The senate shall consist of not less than thirty and not more than fifty members, each of whom shall have attained the age of twenty-one years and be an elector residing in the senatorial district from which he is elected. Each senatorial district shall be contiguous as to territory and shall elect no more than one senator.

(Sec. 1 amended in 1980. See Art. XV of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 2. Section 4 of said article third is amended to read as follows: The house of representatives shall consist of not less than one hundred twenty-five and not more than two hundred twenty-five members, each of whom shall have attained the age of twenty-one years and be an elector residing in the assembly district from which he is elected. Each assembly district shall be contiguous as to territory and shall elect no more than one representative. For the purpose of forming assembly districts no town shall be divided except for the purpose of forming assembly districts wholly within the town.

(Sec. 2 amended in 1980. See Art. XV of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

SEC. 3. Section 10 of article sixth of the constitution is amended to read as follows: Every elector who has attained the age of twenty-one years shall be eligible to any office in the state, but no person who has not attained the age of twenty-one shall be eligible therefor, except in cases provided for in this constitution.

Adopted November 25, 1970.

(Sec. 3 amended in 1980. See Art. XV of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE III.

Section 2 of article third of the constitution is amended to read as follows: There shall be a regular session of the general assembly on the Wednesday following the first Monday of January in the odd-numbered years and on the Wednesday following the first Monday of February in the even-numbered years, and at such other times as the general assembly shall judge necessary; but the person administering the office of governor may, on special emergencies, convene the general assembly at any other time. All regular and special sessions of the general assembly shall be held at Hartford, but the person administering the office of governor may, in case of special emergency, convene the assembly at any other place in the state. The general assembly shall adjourn each regular session in the odd-numbered years not later than the first Wednesday after the first Monday in June and in the even-numbered years not later than the first Wednesday after the first Monday in May and shall adjourn each special session upon completion of its business. If any bill passed by any regular or special session or any appropriation item described in Section 16 of Article Fourth has been disapproved by the governor prior to its adjournment, and has not been reconsidered by the assembly, or is so disapproved after such adjournment, the secretary of the state shall reconvene the general assembly on the second Monday after the last day on which the governor is authorized to transmit or has transmitted every bill to the secretary with his objections pursuant to Section 15 of Article Fourth of this constitution, whichever occurs first; provided if such Monday falls on a legal holiday the general assembly shall be reconvened on the next following day. The reconvened session shall be for the sole purpose of reconsidering and, if the assembly so desires, repassing such bills. The general assembly shall adjourn sine die not later than three days following its reconvening. In the even year session the general assembly shall consider no business other than budgetary, revenue and financial matters, bills and resolutions raised by committees of the general assembly and those matters certified in writing by the speaker of the house of representatives and president pro tempore of the senate to be of an emergency nature.

Adopted November 25, 1970.

ARTICLE IV.

Section 19 of article first of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate, the number of such jurors, which shall not be less than six, to be established by law; but no person shall, for a capital offense, be tried by a jury of less than twelve jurors without his consent. In all civil and criminal actions tried by a jury, the parties shall have the right to challenge jurors peremptorily, the number of such challenges to be established by law. The right to question each juror individually by counsel shall be inviolate.

Adopted December 22, 1972.

ARTICLE V.

Section 20 of article first of the constitution is amended to read as follows: No person shall be denied the equal protection of the law nor be subjected to segregation or discrimination in the exercise or enjoyment of his or her civil or political rights because of religion, race, color, ancestry, national origin or sex.

Adopted November 27, 1974.
(Amended in 1984. See Art. XXI of the Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE VI.

Article Twelfth of the constitution is amended to read as follows: Amendments to this constitution may be proposed by any member of the senate or house of representatives. An amendment so proposed, approved upon roll call by a yea vote of at least a majority, but by less than three-fourths, of the total membership of each house, shall be published with the laws which may have been passed at the same session and be continued to the regular session of the general assembly elected at the next general election to be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in an even-numbered year. An amendment so proposed, approved upon roll call by a yea vote of at least three-fourths of the total membership of each house, or any amendment which, having been continued from the previous general assembly, is again approved upon roll call by a yea vote of at least a majority of the total membership of each house, shall, by the secretary of the state, be transmitted to the town clerk in each town in the state, whose duty it shall be to present the same to the electors thereof for their consideration at the next general election to be held on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November in an even-numbered year. If it shall appear, in a manner to be provided by law, that a majority of the electors present and voting on such amendment at such election shall have approved such amendment, the same shall be valid, to all intents and purposes, as a part of this constitution. Electors voting by absentee ballot under the provisions of the statutes shall be considered to be present and voting.

Adopted November 27, 1974.

ARTICLE VII.

Section 3 of article sixth of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The general assembly shall by law prescribe the offenses on conviction of which the right to be an elector and the privileges of an elector shall be forfeited and the conditions on which and methods by which such rights may be restored.

Adopted November 27, 1974.

ARTICLE VIII.

SEC. 1. Section 5 of article fifth of the constitution is repealed.

SEC. 2. Section 6 of said article fifth is amended to read as follows: No judge shall be eligible to hold his office after he shall arrive at the age of seventy years, except that a chief justice or judge of the supreme court, a judge of the superior court, or a judge of the court of common pleas, who has attained the age of seventy years and has become a state referee may exercise, as shall be prescribed by law, the powers of the superior court or court of common pleas on matters referred to him as a state referee.

Adopted November 27, 1974.

ARTICLE IX.

Section 1 of article sixth of the constitution is amended to read as follows: Every citizen of the United States who has attained the age of eighteen years, who is a bona fide resident of the town in which he seeks to be admitted as an elector and who takes such oath, if any, as may be prescribed by law, shall be qualified to be an elector.

Adopted November 24, 1976.

ARTICLE X.

Article sixth of the constitution is amended by adding the following section:

SEC. 11. Any citizen who will have attained the age of eighteen years on or before the day of a regular election may apply for admission as an elector within the period of four months prior to such election, at such times and in such manner as may be prescribed by law, and, if qualified, shall become an elector on the day of his or her eighteenth birthday.

Adopted November 24, 1976; amended in 1980. (See Art. XIV of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE XI.

Article fifth of the constitution is amended by adding a new section to read as follows:

SEC. 7. In addition to removal by impeachment and removal by the governor on the address of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly, judges of all courts, except those courts to which judges are elected, may, in such manner as shall by law be prescribed, be removed or suspended by the supreme court. The general assembly may establish a judicial review council which may also, in such manner as shall by law be prescribed, censure any such judge or suspend any such judge for a definite period not longer than one year.

Adopted November 24, 1976.

ARTICLE XII.

Section 6 of article third of the constitution is amended to read as follows:

SEC. 6. a. The assembly and senatorial districts as now established by law shall continue until the regular session of the general assembly next after the completion of the next census of the United States. On or before the fifteenth day of February next following the completion of the decennial census of the United States, the general assembly shall appoint a reapportionment committee consisting of four members of the senate, two who shall be designated by the president pro tempore of the senate and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the senate, and four members of the house of representatives, two who shall be designated by the speaker of the house of representatives and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the house of representatives, provided there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the commission in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. Such committee shall advise the general assembly on matters of apportionment. Such general assembly shall, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, enact such plan of districting as is necessary to preserve a proper apportionment of representation in accordance with the principles recited in this article. Thereafter the general assembly shall decennially at its next regular session following the completion of the census of the United States, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, enact such plan of districting as is necessary in accordance with the provisions of this article.

b. If the general assembly fails to enact a plan of districting by the fifteenth day of the May next following the completion of the decennial census of the United States, the governor shall forthwith appoint a commission designated by the president pro tempore of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, the minority leader of the senate and the minority leader of the house of representatives, each of whom shall designate two members of the commission, provided that there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the commission in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. The eight members of the commission so designated shall within fifteen days select an elector of the state as a ninth member.

c. The commission shall proceed to consider the alteration of districts in accordance with the principles recited in this article and it shall submit a plan of districting to the secretary of the state by the first day of the September next succeeding the appointment of its members. No plan shall be submitted to the secretary unless it is certified by at least five members of the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law. If the commission shall fail to submit such a plan by the first day of September, the secretary of the state shall forthwith so notify the chief justice of the supreme court.

d. Original jurisdiction is vested in the supreme court to be exercised on the petition of any registered voter whereby said court may compel the commission, by mandamus or otherwise, to perform its duty or to correct any error made in its plan of districting, or said court may take such other action to effectuate the purposes of this article, including the establishing of a plan of districting if the commission fails to file its plan of districting by the first day of September as said court may deem appropriate. Any such petition shall be filed within forty-five days of the date specified for any duty or within forty-five days after the filing of a plan of districting. The supreme court shall render its decision not later than sixty days following the filing of such petition or shall file its plan with the secretary of the state not later than the fifteenth day of December next following the completion of the decennial census of the United States. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law.

Adopted November 24, 1976; amended in 1980. (See Art. XVI of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE XIII.

Section 9 of article sixth of the constitution is repealed.

Adopted November 26, 1980.

ARTICLE XIV.

Article tenth of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows: Any citizen who will have attained the age of eighteen years on or before the day of a regular election may apply for admission as an elector at such times and in such manner as may be prescribed by law, and, if qualified, shall become an elector on the day of his or her eighteenth birthday.

Adopted November 26, 1980.

ARTICLE XV.

SEC. 1. Section 1 of article two of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows: The senate shall consist of not less than thirty and not more than fifty members, each of whom shall have attained the age of eighteen years and be an elector residing in the senatorial district from which he is elected. Each senatorial district shall be contiguous as to territory and shall elect no more than one senator.

SEC. 2. Section 2 of article two of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows: The house of representatives shall consist of not less than one hundred twenty-five and not more than two hundred twenty-five members, each of whom shall have attained the age of eighteen years and be an elector residing in the assembly district from which he is elected. Each assembly district shall be contiguous as to territory and shall elect no more than one representative. For the purpose of forming assembly districts no town shall be divided except for the purpose of forming assembly districts wholly within the town.

SEC. 3. Section 3 of article two of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows: Every elector who has attained the age of eighteen years shall be eligible to any office in the state, but no person who has not attained the age of eighteen shall be eligible therefor, except in cases provided for in this constitution.

Adopted November 26, 1980.

ARTICLE XVI.

SEC. 1. Section 5 of article third of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The establishment of congressional districts and of districts in the general assembly shall be consistent with federal constitutional standards.

SEC. 2. Article twelve of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows:

a. The assembly and senatorial districts and congressional districts as now established by law shall continue until the regular session of the general assembly next after the completion of the taking of the next census of the United States. On or before the fifteenth day of February next following the year in which the decennial census of the United States is taken, the general assembly shall appoint a reapportionment committee consisting of four members of the senate, two who shall be designated by the president pro tempore of the senate and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the senate, and four members of the house of representatives, two who shall be designated by the speaker of the house of representatives and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the house of representatives, provided there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the committee in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. Such committee shall advise the general assembly on matters of apportionment. Upon the filing of a report of such committee with the clerk of the house of representatives and the clerk of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate shall, if the general assembly is not in regular session, convene the general assembly in special session for the sole purpose of adopting a plan of districting. Upon the request of the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate, the secretary of the state shall give notice of such special session by mailing a true copy of the call of such special session, by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to each member of the house of representatives and of the senate at his or her address as it appears upon the records of said secretary not less than ten nor more than fifteen days prior to the date of convening of such special session or by causing a true copy of the call to be delivered to each member by a sheriff, deputy sheriff, constable, state policeman or indifferent person at least twenty-four hours prior to the time of convening of such special session. Such general assembly shall, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary to preserve a proper apportionment of representation in accordance with the principles recited in this article. Thereafter the general assembly shall decennially at its next regular session or special session called for the purpose of adopting a plan of districting following the completion of the taking of the census of the United States, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary in accordance with the provisions of this article.

b. If the general assembly fails to adopt a plan of districting by the first day of the August next following the year in which the decennial census of the United States is taken, the governor shall forthwith appoint a commission designated by the president pro tempore of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, the minority leader of the senate and the minority leader of the house of representatives, each of whom shall designate two members of the commission, provided that there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the commission in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. The eight members of the commission so designated shall within thirty days select an elector of the state as a ninth member.

c. The commission shall proceed to consider the alteration of districts in accordance with the principles recited in this article and it shall submit a plan of districting to the secretary of the state by the thirtieth day of the October next succeeding the appointment of its members. No plan shall be submitted to the secretary unless it is certified by at least five members of the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law. If the commission shall fail to submit such a plan by the thirtieth day of October, the secretary of the state shall forthwith so notify the chief justice of the supreme court.

d. Original jurisdiction is vested in the supreme court to be exercised on the petition of any registered voter whereby said court may compel the commission, by mandamus or otherwise, to perform its duty or to correct any error made in its plan of districting, or said court may take such other action to effectuate the purposes of this article, including the establishing of a plan of districting if the commission fails to file its plan of districting by the thirtieth day of October as said court may deem appropriate. Any such petition shall be filed within thirty days of the date specified for any duty or within thirty days after the filing of a plan of districting. The supreme court shall render its decision not later than forty-five days following the filing of such petition or shall file its plan with the secretary of the state not later than the fifteenth day of January next following the time for submission of a plan of districting by the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law.

Adopted November 26, 1980.

(Sec. 2 Amended in 1990. See Article XXVI of the Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE XVII.

Section 8 of the article first of the constitution is amended to read as follows: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to be heard by himself and by counsel; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process to obtain witnesses in his behalf; to be released on bail upon sufficient security, except in capital offenses, where the proof is evident or the presumption great; and in all prosecutions by information, to a speedy, public trial by an impartial jury. No person shall be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor shall excessive bail be required nor excessive fines imposed. No person shall be held to answer for any crime, punishable by death or life imprisonment, unless upon probable cause shown at a hearing in accordance with procedures prescribed by law, except in the armed forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger.

Adopted November 24, 1982.

ARTICLE XVIII.

Article second of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The powers of government shall be divided into three distinct departments, and each of them confided to a separate magistracy, to wit, those which are legislative, to one; those which are executive, to another; and those which are judicial, to another. The legislative department may delegate regulatory authority to the executive department; except that any administrative regulation of any agency of the executive department may be disapproved by the general assembly or a committee thereof in such manner as shall by law be prescribed.

Adopted November 24, 1982.

ARTICLE XIX.

.Section 2 of the article eleventh of the constitution is amended to read as follows: Except as provided in this section, neither the state nor any political subdivision of the state shall pay or grant to any elected official of the state or any political subdivision of the state, any compensation greater than the amount of compensation set at the beginning of such official's term of office for the office which such official holds or increase the pay or compensation of any public contractor above the amount specified in the contract. The provisions of this section shall not apply to elected officials in towns in which the legislative body is the town meeting. The compensation of an elected official of a political subdivision of the state whose term of office is four years or more may be increased once after such official has completed two years of his term by the legislative body of such political subdivision. The term "compensation" means, with respect to an elected official, such official's salary, exclusive of reimbursement for necessary expenses or any other benefit to which his office would entitle him.

Adopted November 24, 1982.

ARTICLE XX.

SEC. 1. Section 1 of article fifth of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The judicial power of the state shall be vested in a supreme court, an appellate court, a superior court, and such lower courts as the general assembly shall, from time to time, ordain and establish. The powers and jurisdiction of these courts shall be defined by law.

SEC. 2. Section 2 of article fifth of the constitution is amended to read as follows: The judges of the supreme court, of the appellate court and of the superior court shall, upon nomination by the governor, be appointed by the general assembly in such manner as shall by law be prescribed. They shall hold their offices for the term of eight years, but may be removed by impeachment. The governor shall also remove them on the address of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly.

Adopted November 24, 1982.

(Sec. 2 amended in 1986. See Art. XXV of Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE XXI.

Article fifth of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows: No person shall be denied the equal protection of the law nor be subjected to segregation or discrimination in the exercise or enjoyment of his or her civil or political rights because of religion, race, color, ancestry, national origin, sex or physical or mental disability.

Adopted November 28, 1984.

ARTICLE XXII.

Section 18 of article fourth of the constitution is amended to read as follows:

a. In case of the death, resignation, refusal to serve or removal from office of the governor, the lieutenant-governor shall, upon taking the oath of office of governor, be governor of the State until another is chosen at the next regular election for governor and is duly qualified.

b. In case of the impeachment of the governor or of his absence from the State, the lieutenant-governor shall exercise the powers and authority and perform the duties appertaining to the office of governor until, if the governor has been impeached, he is acquitted or, if absent, he has returned.

c. Whenever the governor transmits to the lieutenant-governor his written declaration that he is unable to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office, and until the governor transmits to the lieutenant-governor a written declaration to the contrary, the lieutenant-governor shall exercise the powers and authority and perform the duties appertaining to the office of governor as acting governor.

d. In the absence of a written declaration of incapacity by the governor, whenever the lieutenant-governor or a majority of the members of the Council on Gubernatorial Incapacity transmits to the Council on Gubernatorial Incapacity a written declaration that the governor is unable to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office, the Council shall convene within forty-eight hours after the receipt of such written declaration to determine if the governor is unable to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office. If the Council, within fourteen days after it is required to convene, determines by two-thirds vote that the governor is unable to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office, it shall transmit a written declaration to that effect to the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives and to the lieutenant-governor and the lieutenant-governor, upon receipt of such declaration, shall exercise the powers and authority and discharge the duties appertaining to the office of the governor as acting governor; otherwise, the governor shall continue to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of his office. Upon receipt by the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives of such a written declaration from the Council, the General Assembly shall, in accordance with its rules, decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the General Assembly, within twenty-one days after receipt of the written declaration or, if the General Assembly is not in session, within twenty-one days after the General Assembly is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of each house that the governor is unable to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of his office, the lieutenant-governor shall continue to exercise the powers and authority and perform the duties appertaining to the office of governor; otherwise, the governor shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

e. In the absence of a written declaration of incapacity by the governor and in an emergency, when the governor is unable to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office and the business of the State requires the immediate exercise of those powers and performance of those duties, the lieutenant-governor shall transmit to the Council on Gubernatorial Incapacity a written declaration to that effect and thereupon shall exercise the powers and authority and discharge the duties appertaining to the office of governor as acting governor. The Council shall convene or the members of the Council shall otherwise communicate with each other collectively within twenty-four hours after the receipt of such written declaration to determine if the governor is unable to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office. If the Council, within fourteen days after it is required to convene, determines by two-thirds vote that the governor is unable to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office, it shall transmit a written declaration to that effect to the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives and to the lieutenant-governor and the lieutenant-governor shall continue to exercise the powers and authority and perform the duties appertaining to the office of governor as acting governor; otherwise, the governor shall resume the powers and duties of his office. Upon receipt by the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives of such a written declaration from the Council, the General Assembly shall, in accordance with its rules, decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the General Assembly, within twenty-one days after receipt of the written declaration or, if the General Assembly is not in session, within twenty-one days after the General Assembly is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of each house that the governor is unable to exercise the powers and discharge the duties of his office, the lieutenant-governor shall continue to exercise the powers and authority and perform the duties appertaining to the office of governor; otherwise, the governor shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

f. Whenever the governor transmits to the president pro tempore of the Senate and the speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists he shall resume the powers and duties of his office upon the determination by a majority vote of each house of the General Assembly, in accordance with its rules, that he is able to exercise the powers and perform the duties of his office.

g. There shall be a Council on Gubernatorial Incapacity, the membership, procedures and terms of office of the members of which the General Assembly shall establish by law.

h. The Supreme Court shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction to adjudicate disputes or questions arising under this section.

Adopted November 28, 1984.

ARTICLE XXIII.

Article fourth of the constitution is amended by adding a new section to read as follows: There shall be established within the executive department a division of criminal justice which shall be in charge of the investigation and prosecution of all criminal matters. Said division shall include the chief state's attorney, who shall be its administrative head, and the state's attorneys for each judicial district, which districts shall be established by law. The prosecutorial power of the state shall be vested in a chief state's attorney and the state's attorney for each judicial district. The chief state's attorney shall be appointed as prescribed by law. There shall be a commission composed of the chief state's attorney and six members appointed by the governor and confirmed by the General Assembly, two of whom shall be judges of the Superior Court. Said commission shall appoint a state's attorney for each judicial district and such other attorneys as prescribed by law.

Adopted November 28, 1984.

ARTICLE XXIV.

Section 5 of article sixth of the constitution is amended to read as follows:

In all elections of officers of the state, or members of the general assembly, the votes of the electors shall be by ballot, either written or printed, except that voting machines or other mechanical devices for voting may be used in all elections in the state, under such regulations as may be prescribed by law. No voting machine or device used at any state or local election shall be equipped with a straight ticket device. The right of secret voting shall be preserved.

Adopted November 19, 1986.

ARTICLE XXV.

Section 2 of article twenty of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows:

Judges of all courts, except those courts to which judges are elected, shall be nominated by the governor exclusively from candidates submitted by the judicial selection commission. The commission shall seek and recommend qualified candidates in such numbers as shall by law be prescribed. Judges so nominated shall be appointed by the general assembly in such manner as shall by law be prescribed. They shall hold their offices for the term of eight years, but may be removed by impeachment. The governor shall also remove them on the address of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly and the supreme court may also remove them as is provided by law.

Adopted November 19, 1986.

ARTICLE XXVI.

Section 2 of article sixteen of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows:

a. The assembly and senatorial districts and congressional districts as now established by law shall continue until the regular session of the general assembly next after the completion of the taking of the next census of the United States. On or before the fifteenth day of February next following the year in which the decennial census of the United States is taken, the general assembly shall appoint a reapportionment committee consisting of four members of the senate, two who shall be designated by the president pro tempore of the senate and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the senate, and four members of the house of representatives, two who shall be designated by the speaker of the house of representatives and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the house of representatives, provided there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the committee in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. Such committee shall advise the general assembly on matters of apportionment. Upon the filing of a report of such committee with the clerk of the house of representatives and the clerk of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate shall, if the general assembly is not in regular session, convene the general assembly in special session for the sole purpose of adopting a plan of districting. Upon the request of the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate, the secretary of the state shall give notice of such special session by mailing a true copy of the call of such special session, by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to each member of the house of representatives and of the senate at his or her address as it appears upon the records of said secretary not less than ten nor more than fifteen days prior to the date of convening of such special session or by causing a true copy of the call to be delivered to each member by a sheriff, deputy sheriff, constable, state policeman or indifferent person at least twenty-four hours prior to the time of convening of such special session. Such general assembly shall, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary to preserve a proper apportionment of representation in accordance with the principles recited in this article. Thereafter the general assembly shall decennially at its next regular session or special session called for the purpose of adopting a plan of districting following the completion of the taking of the census of the United States, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary in accordance with the provisions of this article.

b. If the general assembly fails to adopt a plan of districting by the fifteenth day of the September next following the year in which the decennial census of the United States is taken, the governor shall forthwith appoint a commission designated by the president pro tempore of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives, the minority leader of the senate and the minority leader of the house of representatives, each of whom shall designate two members of the commission, provided that there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the commission in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. The eight members of the commission so designated shall within thirty days select an elector of the state as a ninth member.

c. The commission shall proceed to consider the alteration of districts in accordance with the principles recited in this article and it shall submit a plan of districting to the secretary of the state by the thirtieth day of the November next succeeding the appointment of its members. No plan shall be submitted to the secretary unless it is certified by at least five members of the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of law. If the commission shall fail to submit such a plan by the thirtieth day of November, the secretary of the state shall forthwith so notify the chief justice of the supreme court.

d. Original jurisdiction is vested in the supreme court to be exercised on the petition of any registered voter whereby said court may compel the commission, by mandamus or otherwise, to perform its duty or to correct any error made in its plan of districting, or said court may take such other action to effectuate the purposes of this article, including the establishing of a plan of districting if the commission fails to file its plan of districting by the thirtieth day of November as said court may deem appropriate. Any such petition shall be filed within thirty days of the date specified for any duty or within thirty days after the filing of a plan of districting. The supreme court shall render its decision not later than forty-five days following the filing of such petition or shall file its plan with the secretary of the state not later than the fifteenth day of February next following the time for submission of a plan of districting by the commission. Upon receiving such plan the secretary shall publish the same forthwith, and, upon publication, such plan of districting shall have the full force of the law.

Adopted November 28, 1990; Amended in 2000. (See Article XXX of the Amendments to the Constitution of the State of Connecticut.)

ARTICLE XXVII.

Section 8 of article sixth of the constitution is amended to read as follows:

The general assembly may provide by law for the absentee admission of electors.

Adopted November 25, 1992.

ARTICLE XXVIII.

Article third of the constitution is amended by adding section 18 as follows:

Sec. 18 a. The amount of general budget expenditures authorized for any fiscal year shall not exceed the estimated amount of revenue for such fiscal year.

b. The general assembly shall not authorize an increase in general budget expenditures for any fiscal year above the amount of general budget expenditures authorized for the previous fiscal year by a percentage which exceeds the greater of the percentage increase in personal income or the percentage increase in inflation, unless the governor declares an emergency or the existence of extraordinary circumstances and at least three-fifths of the members of each house of the general assembly vote to exceed such limit for the purposes of such emergency or extraordinary circumstances. The general assembly shall by law define "increase in personal income", "increase in inflation" and "general budget expenditures" for the purposes of this section and may amend such definitions, from time to time, provided general budget expenditures shall not include expenditures for the payment of bonds, notes or other evidences of indebtedness. The enactment or amendment of such definitions shall require the vote of three-fifths of the members of each house of the general assembly.

c. Any unappropriated surplus shall be used to fund a budget reserve fund or for the reduction of bonded indebtedness; or for any other purpose authorized by at least three-fifths of the members of each house of the general assembly.

Adopted November 25, 1992.

ARTICLE XXIX.

Article seventeen of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows:

a. In all Criminal prosecutions, the accused shall have a right to be heard by himself and by counsel; to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted by the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process to obtain witnesses in his behalf; to be released on bail upon sufficient security, except in capital offenses, where the proof is evident or the presumption great; and in all prosecutions by information, to a speedy, public trial by an impartial jury. No person shall be compelled to give evidence against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, nor shall excessive bail be required nor excessive fines imposed. No person shall be held to answer for any crime, punishable by death or life imprisonment, unless upon probable cause shown at a hearing in accordance with procedures prescribed by law, except in the armed forces, or in the militia when in actual service in time of war or public danger.

b. In all criminal prosecutions, a victim, as the general assembly may define by law, shall have the following rights: (1) the right to be treated with fairness and respect throughout the criminal justice process; (2) the right to timely disposition of the case following arrest of the accused, provided no right of the accused is abridged; (3) the right to be reasonably protected from the accused throughout the criminal justice process; (4) the right to notification of court proceedings; (5) the right to attend the trial and all other court proceedings the accused has the right to attend, unless such person is to testify and the court determines that such person's testimony would be materially affected if such person hears other testimony; (6) the right to communicate with the prosecution; (7) the right to object to or support any plea agreement entered into by the accused and the prosecution and to make a statement to the court prior to the acceptance by the court of the plea of guilty or nolo contendere by the accused; (8) the right to make a statement to the court at sentencing; (9) the right to restitution which shall be enforceable in the same manner as any other cause of action or as otherwise provided by law; and (10) the right to information about the arrest, conviction, sentence, imprisonment and release of the accused. The general assembly shall provide by law for the enforcement of this subsection. Nothing in this subsection or in any law enacted pursuant to this subsection shall be construed as creating a basis for vacating a conviction or ground for appellate relief in any criminal case.

Adopted November 27, 1996.

ARTICLE XXX.

Sec. 1. Section 25 of article fourth of the constitution is repealed.

Sec. 2. Subsection a. of article twenty-sixth of the amendments to the constitution is amended to read as follows:

a. The assembly and senatorial districts and congressional districts as now established by law shall continue until the regular session of the general assembly next after the completion of the taking of the next census of the United States. On or before the fifteenth day of February next following the year in which the decennial census of the United States is taken, the general assembly shall appoint a reapportionment committee consisting of four members of the senate, two who shall be designated by the president pro tempore of the senate and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the senate, and four members of the house of representatives, two who shall be designated by the speaker of the house of representatives and two who shall be designated by the minority leader of the house of representatives, provided there are members of no more than two political parties in either the senate or the house of representatives. In the event that there are members of more than two political parties in a house of the general assembly, all members of that house belonging to the parties other than that of the president pro tempore of the senate or the speaker of the house of representatives, as the case may be, shall select one of their number, who shall designate two members of the committee in lieu of the designation by the minority leader of that house. Such committee shall advise the general assembly on matters of apportionment. Upon the filing of a report of such committee with the clerk of the house of representatives and the clerk of the senate, the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate shall, if the general assembly is not in regular session, convene the general assembly in special session for the sole purpose of adopting a plan of districting. Upon the request of the speaker of the house of representatives and the president pro tempore of the senate, the secretary of the state shall give notice of such special session by mailing a true copy of the call of such special session, by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, to each member of the house of representatives and of the senate at his or her address as it appears upon the records of said secretary not less than ten nor more than fifteen days prior to the date of convening of such special session or by causing a true copy of the call to be delivered to each member by a constable, state policeman or indifferent person at least twenty-four hours prior to the time of convening of such special session. Such general assembly shall, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary to preserve a proper apportionment of representation in accordance with the principles recited in this article. Thereafter the general assembly shall decennially at its next regular session or special session called for the purpose of adopting a plan of districting following the completion of the taking of the census of the United States, upon roll call, by a yea vote of at least two-thirds of the membership of each house, adopt such plan of districting as is necessary in accordance with the provisions of this article.

Adopted November 29, 2000.

ARTICLE XXXI.

Article fourteenth of the amendments to the Constitution is amended to read as follows:

Any citizen who will have attained the age of eighteen years on or before the day of a regular election may apply for admission as an elector at such times and in such manner as may be prescribed by law, and, if qualified, shall become an elector on the day of his or her eighteenth birthday. Any citizen who has not yet attained the age of eighteen years but who will have attained the age of eighteen years on or before the day of a regular election, who is otherwise qualified to be an elector and who has applied for admission as an elector in such manner as may be prescribed by law, may vote in any primary election, in such manner as may be prescribed by law, held for such regular election.

Adopted November 26, 2008.

migbest's picture

5. Are there states that do not have Sheriff's Offices?

Yes. Three states that do not have Sheriff's Offices:

Alaska. No county governments.
Connecticut. Sheriffs have been replaced with a State Marshal System.
Hawaii. There are no Sheriffs in Hawaii but Deputy Sheriffs serve in the Sheriff's Division of the Hawaii Department of Public Safety.

migbest's picture

One Connecticut State Marshal's Net Income Soars Above $1 Million
By MATTHEW KAUFFMAN and DAVE ALTIMARI,
The Hartford Courant
EarningsElectionsCrimeLegal ServiceBusiness EnterprisesTrials and Arbitration
John T. Fiorillo is the million-dollar marshal.

Boosted by his ties to the state's two major foreclosure firms, Fiorillo, a Hartford County marshal, reported a net income of more than $1 million for delivering court papers in 2008, according to disclosure forms filed with the Office of State Ethics.

Law firms paid Fiorillo more than $3 million to serve legal papers last year. But he reported spending nearly two-thirds of that on employee and office expenses, leaving him with a bottom line of $1,119,706. Fiorillo's take was more than double the next-highest-earning marshal.

On top of reimbursements for mileage, recording fees and other costs, state marshals generally receive $30 plus $1 a page for each set of legal documents they serve. For Fiorillo, those dollars added up. After expenses, he cleared more than $21,000 a week — roughly the equivalent of delivering a 40-page lawsuit every 15 minutes, 12 hours a day, six days a week.

Several other marshals work out of Fiorillo's office, in a brick office park in Rocky Hill with no signs on the door or the building identifying the business. Two reported receiving a total of about $160,000 from Fiorillo for serving process — about 5 percent of Fiorillo's gross income.

It is unclear who served the rest of the papers. Fiorillo will not discuss his income or business arrangements, according to a woman at his office who would not give her full name or title.

"I will definitely give him the message, but he definitely will not have a comment for you," she said. "I've already been instructed to say that we have no comment."

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Fiorillo's main benefactor last year was the foreclosure firm of Hunt Leibert Jacobson in Hartford, which gave Fiorillo more than $2.2 million in business. The state's other major foreclosure firm, Bendett & McHugh in Farmington — formerly known as Reiner, Reiner & Bendett — provided $762,000 worth of work. The two firms are the busiest in the state, filing about 1,200 suits a month last year, 99 percent of them foreclosure actions. The firms directed about half of their process-serving work last year to Fiorillo, according to the disclosure forms, and sent most of the rest to a handful of other marshals around the state.

After The Courant reported on marshal earnings a year ago, state officials expressed concern about the concentration of business among a small number of process-servers. Now, Attorney General Richard Blumenthal says his office has been actively looking into the issue for several months.

"We have an ongoing investigation involving a number of law firms and marshals relating to potential abuses in the mortgage-foreclosure process," Blumenthal said.

"We're interested in whether there has been improper assignment or allocation of work," he said. "At the most basic and simple level, the question is whether a single person or such a small group of people could possibly do all this work alone."

Blumenthal said his office has interviewed lawyers, marshals and litigants, and received complaints from all three groups.

Adam Bendett, a partner in Bendett & McHugh, said the firm directs a large amount of business to Fiorillo based on the quality of his work.

"Marshal Fiorillo and his office provide excellent service, which is why we utilize his office to meet the service-of-process needs of our clients," Bendett said in a written statement.

Richard Leibert, a founder of Hunt Leibert, did not return a telephone message.

At least two other big earners, Edward DiLieto of East Haven and Thomas Foldy of Bridgeport, also owe most of their paychecks to foreclosures. Those marshals each reported about $800,000 in gross revenue and more than $300,000 in net income last year, with nearly all of it coming from Hunt Leibert.

And the marshal whose paycheck took the biggest hit in 2008 saw his income fall 80 percent after he was dropped from the list of marshals who earn money from the foreclosure firms. In the past, Charles Ferrato delivered papers for Hunt Leibert, but stopped at the end of 2007. That year he reported net income of more than $500,000. Last year, that figure dropped to a little more than $100,000. Ferrato did not respond to a message seeking comment.

The annual disclosure forms show eight state marshals reported a net income of more than $250,000 in 2008, and an additional 27 had net income exceeding $100,000. But most of the more than 200 state marshals earn far more modest incomes, with the majority reporting a profit of less than $39,000.

And many marshals may be losing some of their income if state officials have their way. Looking for new revenue streams to offset growing budget deficits, the legislature is considering a bill to have the state treasurer's office take over court-ordered bank and wage executions that marshals currently handle.

When marshals serve papers to attach a defendant's bank account or wages, they add a 15 percent fee for themselves. Under the pending bill, the treasurer's office would take over that work and collect a 12.5 percent fee for the state. Last year, marshals collected more than $3.3 million serving 22,000 executions.

"The fact of the matter is when times are bad, we do good and debt collections are a big source of revenue that they are trying to take away from us," said a longtime marshal who earns a significant amount of income from executions.

The marshal said it is well-known that a small number of process-servers do most of the foreclosure work in the state. The marshal said many colleagues wish they could share in all that money.

"Would I like to see those law firms spread that work to another 20 marshals? Sure," the marshal said. "But it's a free market and they can choose who they want to use and as long as those guys are doing the job there's not much you can say."

Foldy, the fourth-highest-earning marshal with a net income of more than $340,000, recently served a two-week suspension after the State Marshal Commission, which oversees marshals, ruled he had paid a non-marshal to serve legal papers for him.

Foldy ran afoul of Norwalk police in October 2007 when a civilian named Edwin Scott Powley served an eviction notice for Foldy without a state marshal present as required by law. Powley was wearing a state marshal cap during the eviction and gave authorization for a locksmith to change the locks on the apartment, according to police reports. Powley then entered the apartment.

Powley was arrested for impersonating a police officer and criminal trespassing. He pleaded guilty to simple trespassing and paid a $50 fine. The marshal commission also investigated and found that Foldy had illegally used Powley more than once to conduct marshal business.

In his testimony before the commission, Foldy said he believed that other Fairfield County marshals had it in for him.

"Foldy also believed other marshals were jealous of him for taking most of the work of the Hunt, Leibert Jacobson law firm and that some marshals were looking to discredit him and were aggressively tracking Mr. Powley," the commission wrote in its final report.

For decades, the lucrative business of serving court papers was controlled by elected county sheriffs, who doled out the jobs to political allies. But following a string of corruption scandals, voters amended the state constitution in 2000 to abolish the sheriff system and turn the work over to state marshals controlled by a new State Marshal Commission.

But all of the paper-servers were allowed to keep their jobs, and more than two-thirds of the current state marshals got their jobs when the system ran on patronage. Fiorillo, for example, began serving papers more than 20 years ago under former Hartford County Sheriff Alfred J. Rioux, who was later convicted on federal charges of extorting money from his deputies. And in 1996, Fiorillo was fined by the State Elections Enforcement Commission for making illegal campaign loans to Rioux's successor, Walter J. Kupchunos.

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Tag Archives: marshal commission

A Bushwhacked Sheriff in Newtown…

9 Votes

The plot thickens… Warning: Profane speech in use and may be offensive for some audience. Parental Discretion is Advised…

cartoo cowboy revisedWhere was the Sheriff during the Sandy Hook shooting? The “shh…” of Newtown.

The Government Rag | 04Feb2013 | Opinion
The Fairfield County Sheriff’s office (at one time) was a law enforcement agency that was established under the original Constitution of Connecticut, which gave the publicly elected High Sheriff the powers to enforce the lawful laws and the power to arrest those that break the laws. However, it appears the Nation has been missing a critical link in the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting investigation. That missing link is the powers of the Connecticut Sheriff’s Department.

(Original photo retrieved from Big Stock photo).

In 1999, Governor John G. Rowland called to abolish the sheriff system in Connecticut, due to financial scandals that were discovered and investigated by Attorney General, Richard Blumenthal. Edwin S. Mak, then, was the county Sheriff. In December 2000, the Fairfield Sheriff’s office was bushwhacked and disbanded. Before the disbanding, the Department of Administrative Services was solely responsible for the testing process for special deputy sheriffs.

In December 2000, Connecticut legislators replaced the Sheriff’s with the State Marshal Commission (see below), which is under the command of the Department of Administrative Services. This startling and undercover move was formed under Public Act 00-99, with the creation of the Commission. On 11Nov2000, a Constitutional Amendment repealed the portion regarding Sheriffs.

There are several references to the exact legal definition of the new amendment here. Some are listed below:

“Sec. 7. (NEW) (a) “State marshal” means a qualified deputy sheriff incumbent on June 30, 2000, under section 6-38 of the general statutes, as amended by this act, or appointed pursuant to section 8 of this act who shall have authority to provide legal execution and service of process in the counties in this state pursuant to section 6-38 of the general statutes, as amended by this act, as an independent contractor compensated on a fee for service basis, determined, subject to any minimum rate promulgated by the state, by agreement with an attorney, court or public agency requiring execution or service of process.”

“Sec. 8. (NEW) (a) There is established a State Marshal Commission which shall consist of eight members appointed as follows: (1) The Chief Justice shall appoint one member who shall be a judge of the Superior Court; (2) the speaker of the House of Representatives, the president pro tempore of the Senate, the majority and minority leaders of the House of Representatives and the majority and minority leaders of the Senate shall each appoint one member; and (3) the Governor shall appoint one member who shall serve as chairperson. No member of the commission shall be a state marshal, except that two state marshals appointed by the State Marshals Advisory Board in accordance with section 146 of this act shall serve as ex officio, nonvoting members of the commission.”

“Sec. 10. (NEW) The Chief Court Administrator shall employ, within available appropriations for such purpose, such staff as are necessary to support the transferred functions of the county sheriff system. The Chief Court Administrator shall first offer such employment to qualified persons employed in the administration of the county sheriff system on July 1, 2000.”

“Sec. 130. (NEW) All special deputy sheriffs serving on the effective date of this act as prisoner custody and transportation personnel and as court security personnel and all deputy sheriffs serving on the effective date of this act as prisoner custody or transportation personnel and as court security personnel who elect to continue to perform such functions under section 142 of this act shall continue to provide such prisoner custody, transportation or court security services after the effective date of this act as judicial marshals and shall be employees of the Judicial Department. The Judicial Department shall recognize the bargaining unit of special deputy sheriffs for the purpose of collective bargaining with judicial marshals.”

“Sec. 143. (NEW) On or after December 1, 2000, no sheriff may appoint or remove any deputy sheriff or special deputy sheriff.”

“Sec. 144. (NEW) Before December 1, 2000, each high sheriff, in carrying out the duties of sheriff, shall cooperate with the Chief Court Administrator to ensure the efficient operation of the office of sheriff and transition of the functions of said office to the Judicial Department.”

The above new changes listed are just some highlights of the shocking amendment to the Constitution of Connecticut. The information is alarming as it shows how the guts of America are being spiced from the inside out and the indoctrination of disbanding the Sheriff’s Departments in America are in full swing. Of course, it is all in the name of saving the taxpayer a Federal Reserve note and keeping us all safe from the lone wolf. Wrong! The bait and switch at Sandy Hook continues…

(CORRUPTION ALERT) – Following the ‘call’ for the disbanding of the Sheriff’s Departments in Connecticut, it just so happens that in July 2004, an investigation was launched into Governor Rowland’s office for numerous scandals. Rowland was the 86th Governor of Connecticut (95-04) and a member of the Republican Party.

According to an article half way down the page by NBC 30,

“Rowland plead guilty to one charge of stealing honest service.”
“Rowland, a three-term governor, resigned on July 1 amid a federal probe and a legislative impeachment inquiry. The source, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said Rowland will plead guilty to unspecified charges to avoid indictment and end the two-year long investigation into corruption in his administration.”

According to another article in 2004 by Parent Advocates,

“Rowland resigned amid legislative hearings that threatened to lead to his impeachment. Rell will fill the remainder of his term, which expires after the November 2006 elections.”

“In September, Rowland’s former co-chief of staff and a major state construction contractor pleaded not guilty to charges they ran a criminal organization from the governor’s office, trading contracts for gold coins, expensive meals and limousine trips.”

“A 15-count indictment accused former co-chief of staff Peter N. Ellef, his son Peter Ellef II and contractor William Tomasso of conspiring to steer state contracts from 1997 to 2003.”

According to Judicial Misconduct BlogSpot, a letter was sent to Governor Rowland for his first day in Federal Prison,

“A letter mailed out today:
Federal Inmate # 15623-014, Ex-Governor (CT) John G. Rowland
FCI LORETTO
FEDERAL CORRECTIONAL INSTITUTION
P.O. BOX 1000
LORETTO, PA 15940”

“Dear Federal Inmate # 15623-014, SHITBAG, Ex Connecticut Governor, John G. Rowland,
You deserve to spend your life in prison or be hung for treason, you piece of shit.
When you look in the mirror, it is the man in the mirror that put you where you are now.
Maybe my hours, efforts, and mental concentration of wanting you in prison, disgraced, without the comfort of your wife, family, to lose the respect of those around you, and for your life being forever altered and tarnished may have not happened, but for me.
I live for this day, and to mail this letter, that is what got me through the anger of having been put in prison for complaining to your office about being pissed off about heroin and crack cocaine being sold off my Stafford Springs Connecticut yard by teens fighting, swilling beer, smoking pot, using my yard as a toilet, and a hangout for sex orgies, asking that something be done about that, Connecticut State Police misconduct, and the bias and unlawfulness of the Connecticut Court System, which is merely a revenue collection system, manned by armed revenue collectors, police, and Mafia Dons, Members of the Connecticut Judiciary.
If there is justice in America the RICO statutes should be used to punish you, the former head of the Connecticut State Police, the rogue judges, and others that were part of your criminal empire.
You probably, with your charisma and contacts, would have been the next Republic(an) Golden Boy, the man to succeed Bush 2.
But, no, you sit in prison, with absolutely no chance of political office, or even voting in an election, ever again.
You’re welcome, asshole.
Thank me, no, thank yourself, you disgusting, lying piece of shit.”

READ THE REST OF LETTER HERE…It get’s worse…

Rowland only served 10 months of his prison sentence for all the corruption…

Oh – and there is even more…. it turns out that Attorney General, Richard Blumenthal, has also some questionable history himself.

richard blumenthal and obama blog times union dot com

According to an article by Times Union Blog,

“Blumenthal served for 20 years as Connecticut’s attorney general before coming off the bench in 2010 to run for the seat of fellow Democrat Christopher Dodd, who retired and is now the head of the Motion Picture Association of America.”

“A sound bite machine who was known for being an activist attorney general and loyalist to President Obama on issues such as the Affordable Care Act, Blumenthal stood next to Holder at the 10th anniversary observance of the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks at Ground Zero.Holder is expected to stay on as AG for only one year in Obama’s second term.”

Blumenthal also was accused of ‘misstating’ his military record at one point. According to ABC News, Blumenthal was quoted:

“Now, on a few occasions I have misspoken about my service, and I regret that and I take full responsibility,” he said at a news conference at a Veterans of Foreign Wars post in West Hartford. “But I will not allow anyone to take a few misplaced words and impugn my record of service to our country.”

“Blumenthal spoke one day after a published report revealed that the Democratic senatorial candidate never served in Vietnam despite repeated public claims to the contrary.”

“The bombshell dropped as Blumenthal, Connecticut’s attorney general, seeks the seat being vacated by Democratic Sen. Christopher Dodd.”

Most disheartening, is the shocking discovery that the Citizens of Connecticut voted in 2000 to eliminate the sheriff’s departments! The poll shows 65.6% (585,155 votes) to eliminate the county Sheriff. WHAT? Hummmm, were all the Citizens sleeping sound out there, as an apparent hostile takeover of the Fairfield Sheriff’s Department was taken under siege? Were they tricked through mind-control to ‘oust’ the Sheriff? This cannot be real, right? Yes, and my last question is has anyone requested that the ballots be recounted??? This is a very scary move for the nation to eliminate the county sheriff (Snipet Ballotpedia). As we all know, there is a hostile take-over and they want every Sheriff in America on the run….

elimatesheriff vote 2000

MEET THE COMMISSION THAT TOOK OVER THE FAIRFIELD SHERIFF’S OFFICE!
According to the State Marshal Commission’s website,

“it was created by Public Act 00-99, in 2000. Chapter 78 of the Connecticut General Statutes sets forth the law covering the state marshal system. Pursuant to Conn. Gen. Stat. Sec. 6-38b the State Marshal Commission consists of eight members appointed by the specified executive, judicial and legislative branch authorities. The term for members is three years. There are also two Ex-Officio members of the Commission from the State Marshals Advisory Board.”

Currently, there are only the following names of the Commission listed:
Commission Members (Appointed by the specified executive, judicial, and legislative branch authorities)

hope seeley Hope C. Seeley, Esquire – (Chairperson)
University of Connecticut; Criminal Practice Committee by Chief Justice of Connecticut Supreme Court; Conn Criminal Defense Lawyer’s Association; CBA’s Trial Advocacy Institute; Hartford County Bar Association; Best Lawyer’s in America; Community Partners in Action; Accepted Bar Admission: Conn. 89’; U. S. District Court, U.S. District of Connecticut; U.S. Court of Appeals 2nd Circuit; American Trial Lawyers Association.

(Photo obtained by Santos-Seeley).

Seeley was part of the defense team for former corrupt Chief Executive Officer of Hartford, CT, Eddie Perez. The Chief Executive position used to be called the ‘Mayor’ of the city until there were changes within the city charter in 2002. Perez was convicted of five felony corruption charges, which included bribery, fabricating evidence, and conspiracy to fabricate evidence, and later extortion.

mauroVincent Mauro, Jr. – Special Council – Connecticut State Senate; Special Council to Majority leader; Senator Martin Looney (D); New Haven. Quinnipiac University Law, New Haven, Inc.; New Haven Shelter for Women and children; Democratic Senator Majority PAC; N. Haven City government; member of five-person board of Fire Commissioners, Board of Aldemen; non-attorney member of the Statewide Grievance Committee.Photo obtained by New Haven Independent).

According to an article by Courant,

“Some of the powerful are not elected. In the press of business, staff members claim a dangerous share of dominion over the legislature. That’s why a brigade of lobbyists wrote checks and headed to New Haven on March 29 to underwrite and attend a roast for Vincent E. Mauro, Jr., special counsel to the majority leader, Sen. Martin Looney, D-New Haven.”

“The roast, to benefit Life Haven, Inc., which operates a New Haven shelter for women and children, demonstrated how power flows away from the public in Connecticut. Let’s assume that Life Haven, Inc., does good work. Congratulations to them for that. That’s not why the permanent residents of the Capital village made their way to St. Mary’s basement hall on the 29. They were there because Mauro is a key player in deciding the flow of business in the state Senate.”

“ Connecticut government has become an enormous enterprise. It spends $20 billion a year and intrudes on every aspect of our lives. It can hinder businesses. It rewards the influential with millions in corporate welfare. It has the power, which it often uses, to stifle opportunity and chase away the innovative. It can also, for example, regulate or ignore corporate mergers. That may be why a generous complement of lobbyists from Northeast Utilities supported the Mauro event, no doubt laughing with gusto at the jokes and congratulating Mauro on his community spirit.”

Mauro’s father died at 44 in a car accident, but was also elected to the New Haven Board and served as the board’s president and as Democratic chairperson for the town. The City then honored Mauro and named a school on Orchard Street after him in 1988. He was then honored later when his name was attached to Mauro-Sheridan Science, Technology, and Communications School.

my record journal mildred torres-ferguson

Mildred Torres-Ferguson – Democratic Town Committee in Meriden; Treasure of Christopher G. Donovan (D) Dist. #84 (photo obtained My Record Journal).

In 2009, a complaint was filed by Christopher Healy, Wethersfield to the STATE OF CONNECTICUT- STATE ELECTIONS ENFORCEMENT COMMISSION, and brought forth evidence that Mildred Torres-Ferguson’s daughter stole funds from the election fund. After stealing the campaign’s credit card, she racked up a $441.88 charge. The daughter then stole the card again and charged an additional $1747.15. Torres-Ferguson admitted that the theft took place but blamed her daughter’s alleged mental illness and unruliness as the reason for her actions. Therefore, blatantly speaking – she pulled the sympathetic act to get her daughter out of hot water! Everyone needs to feel sorry for the mentally ill, right? When a child steals, it can now be blamed and excused on the mental illness?? Hummmm, is this another clue into the Medicolegal agenda?

The Commission’s Conclusion and Findings (ORDER),

“13. Considering the forgoing findings, facts, and circumstances, the Commission declines to pursue the matter further as against either Respondent Torres-Ferguson or her daughter.”

So let me get this straight… as long as someone professes that a mental illness is to blame, the Commission will disregard the entire crime? Please – can’t you people see what the heck is going down here in America?

Torres-Ferguson complaint

vincent lorracaRobert P. LaTorraca –
American Medical Response/CEO (retired); Banton Construction; United Cleaning & Restoration LLC, LaTorraca Consulting; New Haven Ambulance; emergency management (photo obtained by Hamden Fire Retirees); Quinnipiac College and State University; Southern Connecticut State University (Photo obtained by Hamden Fire Retiree’s Association).

Campaign money shows he was the CEO of American Medical Response. In the November 09, 2006 Congressional Record – Extension of remarks, made a tribute to LaTorraca on this retirement.

“Bob distinguished himself as an innovator by developing the first proprietary accounts receivable system in the state and establishing the first neonatal transport contract with Yale-New Haven Hospital. When, in the early nineties, New Haven Ambulance Service became one of the four founding companies of American Medical Response, Bob was named Chief Operating Officer for Connecticut and for the Northeast Operations just a few years later.Leading a team of more than eight thousand employees in 23 states prior to his retirement, Bob achieved great professional success, however, his innumerable contributions to communities in need are what set him apart.

Most recently, and perhaps most notably, were the actions he took following two of the most devastating events in our Nation’s history. On September 11, 2001, he personally led a contingent of American Medical Response personnel from both Connecticut and New York to support of Fire Department of New York, and, just this past year, Bob has made a number of trips to assist in the ongoing relief efforts in Mississippi in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Bob has also left an indelible mark on his own community with his outstanding efforts on behalf of a variety of local organizations and committees. The Hamden Fire Commission, the Shirley Frank Foundation, the Clelian Adult Daycare Center, and Mothers Against Drunk Driving are just a few of those who have benefited from Bob’s support.”

Joel I. Rudikoff, Esq. –
Council to the Connecticut Senate Democrats & General Assembly; AA-Jones Day; BA-Rutgers University; University of Chicago Law School; Advisory Council to Office of Child Advocates; Advisory Council to Connecticut Division to Autism Services; Board of Trustee- Connecticut Tobacco & Health Trust Fund; Connecticut Law Review Commission; Anti-Defamation (ADL); Connecticut Civil Rights Committee; Author of the Connecticut Autism Insurance Law, SB301 (AN ACT CONCERNING HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS).

The First three on the list for the Connecticut Insurance law, SB301 is:

“(1) “Applied behavior analysis” means the design, implementation and evaluation of environmental modifications, using behavioral stimuli and consequences, including the use of direct observation, measurement and functional analysis of the relationship between environment and behavior, to produce socially significant improvement in human behavior.

(2) “Autism services provider” means any person, entity or group that provides treatment for autism spectrum disorders.

(3) “Behavioral therapy” means interactive therapies derived from evidence-based research that are provided to children less than thirteen years of age, including, but not limited to, applied behavior analysis that is provided or supervised by a behavior analyst who is certified by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board.”

Note: Adam Lanza was diagnosed with a form of Autism called – – Asperger syndrome

According to NYTimes article titled, Scientists Link Rare Gene Mutation to Autism Risk ,

“The gene mutations are extremely rare and together account for a tiny fraction of autism cases — in these studies, only a handful of children. Experts said the new research gave scientists something they had not had: a clear strategy for building some understanding of the disease’s biological basis.”

IS this the ‘EVIL’ gene, that they are looking for in Adam Lanza’s DNA?

SPOOKY…

Okay all, it’s all just a conspiracy theory… at the sound of my voice you will all go back to sleep…

So, let me get this straight…. If Adam Lanza had Autism and if he was on medication, then he would have to have insurance. His mother, Nancy Lanza got a healthy check from her x-Peter Lanza according to a divorce settlement. The following section is included in the Connecticut Autism Insurance Law:

“(c) Such policy shall provide coverage for the following, provided such treatments are medically necessary and are prescribed or ordered by a licensed physician, licensed psychologist or licensed clinical social worker for an insured who is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, in accordance with a treatment plan developed by a licensed physician, licensed psychologist or licensed clinical social worker in a manner consistent with the most recent report or recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry or the American Psychological Association”

So, according to The Telegraph,

“Adam Lanza caused so much concern because of his social awkwardness at high school that he was assigned a psychologist, according to a former school official.”

According to The Wall Street Journal,

“His high school classmates took little notice of Mr. Lanza, but school officials did. Newtown school officials assigned a permanent psychologist to Mr. Lanza in his freshman year of high school in 2007, and flagged him to the school’s security chief when he was still in middle school, a former school official said. “He was very withdrawn and meek,” said Mr. Novia, who left the district in 2008. He said Mr. Lanza “was one of those freshmen coming in very much in need of watching.”

This would coincide with the Insurance law. The only question is who is this psychologist and why haven’t we heard from him/her???

The only psychologist that is mentioned in the whole mass murder at Sandy Hook is Mary (Greene) Sherlach, who was allegedly killed at the hands of Adam Lanza. Sherlach is reported to have worked at the school for 18 years as a psychologist and worked with children that had mental health. She is married to William (Bill) Sherlach, who works at The 1st Group at Morgan Stanley and is listed as Vice President.

Unfortunately, three employees of Morgan Stanley were directly effected by the shooting. Morgan Stanley donated $150,000 to charities that are honoring the victims. According to Dealbook NY Times,

“Mary Sherlach, the school psychologist, was married to Bill Sherlach, a financial adviser at the bank. Jack Pinto, 6, was the son of Dean Pinto, a lawyer at Morgan Stanley. Grace McDonnell, 7, was the niece of Paul Minella, who works in the company’s capital markets division within Morgan Stanley’s wealth management unit.”

Was Sherlach Adam Lanza’s psychologist? I could not any reports on who he was actually assigned to but if someone would like to come forward and correct me with the name of the psychologist, feel free…

At this time, the theory stands that Mary Sherlach may have been Adam Lanza’s assigned psychologist. Did I mention that this was a conspiracy theory and you can all go back to sleep now?

Rudikoff is married to Dr. Robin Meryl Masheb, who is a psychiatrist and Professor of Psychiatry at Yale University; American Psychiatric Association (APA); NIH; National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) -

Other members include:

Michael Cronin, Esq. (Vice-Chairperson)
Private Practice, Connecticut Bar Association

Sarah Holbrook, Esq.
Private Practice – Connecticut

Ex –Officio Members (Non-voting members from the State Marshals Advisory Board)

Marshal Lisa Stevenson –Hartford, CT Marshal, responsible for civil processes; Previously Deputy Sheriff – Hartford; State Marshal Advisory Board

Marshal Thomas Burke – Norwich, CT

Marshal assigned to Newtown:
Frank R. DeLucia – Ex Director of Nunnawauk Meadows; Newtown City Government, Constable appointed by board of Selectmen. Married to: Linda DeLucia – ReMax Real Estate, Western Connecticut, Board Member Northern Fairfield County Association of Realtors, Member NFCAR Grievance Committee; Founder Best of Brookfield

DeLucia addresses his feelings about the death of his friend, Glenn “Benny” Atkinson, aka the ‘9/11 flagman’ in a CT News article in January 2011.

“Although many people think of patriotism and the 9-11 terrorist attacks when they drive by this emblazoned flag, so many others think of Glenn Atkinson, at least those who know the story of the man behind the flag.”

List of all Fairfield County Marshals

CONCLUSION –

Despite the corruption that took place within the Sheriff’s Department at the time, there was an obviously agenda taking place to oust the sheriffs long before it took place. How come there is a black out on the Sheriff of Fairfield County? The Sheriff was bushwhacked because there was an agenda as far back as 1999 or even before. Corrupt Governor Rowland, along with his associates, were setting up a criminal enterprise within the Governor’s office. Just because the Governor was brought down, does that mean that the rest were? I doubt it…

This evidence alone should be alarming. Research concludes with disbelief how the entire State of Connecticut is ran like a corporation and an obvious criminal enterprise runs rampant within the State. The Citizen’s of Connecticut made a critical mistake by voting to eliminate the Sheriff’s Departments and strip the powers of the elected Sheriff’s away. This ensures that the entire criminal enterprise is safely protected and the Citizen’s are more than likely under some sort of mind-control trance. This mind control technique could easily be performed through education, television screens, technology, indoctrination, disassociation techniques, trauma, and the latest and notorious – fear. Maybe it is not even mind control, per say, it could also be the dumbing down of America with your favorite teeth cleaner, fluoride?

Recently, I had to endure a whole two months of the local radio advertisements that included the word ‘executive order’ in petty business advertisements and made it sound like a wonderful thing. See, now when the mass hears the words ‘executive order’ they will feel it is the safe and trusting thing to do. People, please turn off your local stations and stop watching the tube! There is a world to fix out there! Put these criminals out of business for mind-controlling the nation. There is something seriously wrong when nearly 67% of the Connecticut votes to eliminate the first & last line of defense in the sand against tyranny and treason? Please…

Maybe it is not even mind-control and indoctrination at all… maybe it is just plain election fraud. I just have a very difficult time believing that the Citizen’s of Connecticut would vote the Sheriff out without someone behind the curtain tagging the votes to the YES side…

What is even more shocking is that the law and arrest powers in Connecticut lie in the hands of the State – not the Sheriff. Following the shooting, each family member was assigned troopers. According to an immediate release from CT’s Department of Emergency Services & Public Protection (DESPP),

(Note: DESPP’s Division includes- Homeland Security, Fire Prevention & Control, Statewide Emergency Telecommunications, Police Officers Standards & Training Council, Scientific Services, and State Police. Under the direct command of Commissioner, Reuben F. Bradford).

“The family of each victim was assigned a Trooper or Officer to establish and maintain an open line of communication. This was put into place so families of the victims can have immediate contact related to any questions they may have and to also provide State Police investigators the ability to communicate with families without delay. The families have requested no press interviews and we are asking that this request be honored.”

I bring this to you only because it is my duty as a Citizen Journalist. I mean no harm or ill feelings to the family members and victims of this alleged murderous rampage. This information is brought forth to help advance the understanding of the current status of the nation and the hostile-takeover that all Business Management majors are taught in college. It is a hostile take-over people. It is not just DHS running around staging shoot-em-ups. It is a real life blood bath taking place behind the scenes. An Oath so secret that even the good guys are afraid to speak of it.

Why do they want to disarm Americans all in the name of Mental Health and security? Two simple reasons. One, because they have created a mentally unstable generation of heavily medicated people, who have undergone ‘behavior modifications’ that is now backfiring and out of control. Second, they realize now the Nation has awakened to their scientific experimentation and financial corruption. As long as they continue to stage the FEAR-based trauma events (hoax or not) the goal to turn our country into a deeper mind-controlled nation and to disassociate the mind…

“Whenever you have truth it must be given with love, or the message and the messenger will be rejected” – Mahatma Gandhi

eagle eye

Shhh…

shhh

Photo obtained by Global Research (Newtown, CT)

MARSHAL CHART CT -4

See Charts

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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fairfield_County_Sheriff’s_Department_(Connecticut)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_G._Rowland
http://www.globalresearch.ca/the-sandy-hook-tragedy-an-inquisitive-visit...
http://www.das.state.ct.us/cr1.aspx?page=107
http://cga.ct.gov/2000/act/pa/2000PA-00099-R00HB-05832-PA.htm
https://thegovernmentrag.wordpress.com/2012/12/16/whos-on-first-the-bait...
http://parentadvocates.org/nicecontent/dsp_printable.cfm?articleID=5208
http://www.nbcconnecticut.com/
http://rense.com/general95/delaware.html
http://judicialmisconduct.blogspot.com/2006/11/letter-sent-to-governor-j...
http://www.nytimes.com/2006/02/14/nyregion/14rowland.html
http://blog.timesunion.com/politicssource/blumenthal-for-ag-no-comment/3...
http://abcnews.go.com/WN/Blotter/richard-blumenthal-politician-misstate-...
http://ballotpedia.org/wiki/index.php/Connecticut_Eliminate_County_Sheri...(2000)
http://www.orlandosentinel.com/topic/hc-perez-appeal-0110-20120109,0,770...
http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/aldermen/index.asp
http://www.corruptct.com/corrupt/executive-committee-appointments-promot...
http://articles.courant.com/2012-04-08/news/hc-op-rennie-connecticut-pow...
http://seec.ct.gov/e2casebase/data/fd/FD_2009_040.1.pdf
https://thegovernmentrag.wordpress.com/2013/01/26/the-motive-at-newtown/
http://www.campaignmoney.com/ceo.asp?pg=539
http://www.cga.ct.gov/2009/TOB/S/2009SB-00301-R01-SB.htm
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CREC-2006-11-09/pdf/CREC-2006-11-09-extensi...
http://www.jud.ct.gov/faq/marshals.htm
http://blog.ctnews.com/takeonlife/2011/01/15/the-newtown-man-who-loved-h...
http://www.ct.gov/despp/cwp/view.asp?Q=515554
http://www.ct.gov/despp/cwp/view.asp?a=4156&q=494728
http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/bye/1QoPWw4lZX-i-iSxuQ7LlXNxeQYxUd-B.
http://pennstatehershey.adam.com/content.aspx?productId=117&pid=1&gid=00...
http://www.pressconnects.com/article/20121215/NEWS01/312150027/Connectic...
http://www.pressconnects.com/article/20121215/NEWS01/312150027/Connectic...
http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2012/12/19/morgan-stanley-reaches-out-after-...
http://www.morganstanleyfa.com/theistgroup/groupdetail.htm
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/9750422/Conne...
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/05/health/research/scientists-link-rare-g...
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2253797/DNA-Sandy-Hook-killer-Ad...
Read more letters about Governor Rowland’s Corruption Scandals!!!

—A letter to Leonard C. Boyle, current Commissioner of the Connecticut State Police, Jan. 20, 2005, asking him if Connecticut State Police misconduct still goes unpunished

—My March 10, 2005 request of the US DOJ to look into possible misconduct of the Attorney General of Connecticut aiding in covering up Official and Police misconduct and corruption

—Please investigate and punish Arthur L. Spada, former judge and Connecticut State Police Commissioner

Read More:
The Motive in Newtown
Who’s on first? The Bait & Switch at Sandy Hook
The Official Jared Lee Loughner Investigation
Following the leads… and find out the truth…

*** If you would like to dispute anything about this article email The Government Rag at atruerag at thegovernment rag dot com

Note to reader: None of this information may be shared or transmitted electronically, used, reproduced in any form unless it is shared in it’s entirety and not for profit, and for educational and entertainment purposes only. Give credit where credit is due.

MAYDAY

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Denny Salvage's picture

How do I remove myself from County Organizer (New London)w/o canceling my account? It is not covered under 'edit'. Thanks, Dennis