Chief Law Enforcement Officer

      “The Sheriff is the chief executive and administrative officer of a county, being chosen by popular election. His principal duties are in aid of the criminal courts and civil courts of record; such as serving process, summoning juries, executing judgments, holding judicial sales and the like. He is also the chief conservator of the peace within his territorial jurisdiction.” When used in statutes, the term may include a deputy sheriff.

      Justice Scalia, writing for the majority in a 1997 decision said that the “States are not subject to federal direction” and that the US Congress only had “discreet and enumerated powers” and that federal impotency was “rendered express” by the Tenth Amendment. He further confirmed that the Sheriff is the Chief Law Enforcement Officer of the county and also proclaimed that the States “retained an inviolable sovereignty.” Scalia went even further in this landmark decision, one in which two small-town sheriffs headed the Feds “off at the pass” and sent them on their way. Scalia, in his infinite obligation to the Constitution, took this entire ruling to the tenth power when he said, “The Constitution protects us from our own best intentions... so that we may resist the temptation to concentrate power in one location as an expedient solution to the crisis of the day.” Obviously the Sheriff is the Peoples last line of defense against a government gone rogue.

      Law EnforcementA sheriff always has the power to make arrests within his or her own county. Some states extend this authority to adjacent counties or to the entire state. Many sheriffs’ offices also perform routine patrol functions such as traffic control, accident investigations, and transportation of prisoners. Larger departments may perform criminal investigations, and some unusually large sheriffs’ offices command an air patrol, a mounted patrol, or a marine patrol.

      Sheriffs still enlist the aid of the citizens. The National Neighborhood Watch Program, sponsored by the National Sheriffs’ Association, allows citizens and law enforcement officials to cooperate in keeping communities safe. As the sheriffs’ law enforcement duties become more extensive and complex, new career opportunities will exist for people with specialized skills: underwater diving, piloting, boating, skiing, radar technology, communications, computer technology, accounting, emergency medicine, and foreign languages (especially Spanish, French, and Vietnamese.)

Just Courts of Law Rest Upon Six Foundational Truths

       (1) Truths are self-evident, (2) All men are created equal, (3) We are endowed (gifted) by the Creator, (4) We have unalienable Rights, (5) To secure these rights we have a right to institute governments, (constitution), (6) Governments that derive their ‘just powers’ from the consent of the People wherein we ordained and established the following:

We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.” – Preamble to the Constitution for the United States of America.

      Therefore, by the Powers vested in We the People by God, We the People did “Ordain & Establish” vested powers to our government servants who are bound by the chains of the Constitution thru their oaths, to the following six truths, alone: (1)Form a more perfect union, (2)Establish justice, (3)Insure domestic tranquility, (4)Provide for the common defense, (5)Promote the general welfare and (6)Secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity. No legislation is to pass that does not in the end serve one or more of the aforesaid six truths, any legislation to the contrary is “null and void” and the Sheriff is bound to treat it as such under the following General Rule:

General Rule

      “The general rule is that an unconstitutional statute, though having the form and name of law, is in reality no law, but is wholly void and ineffective for any purpose, since its unconstitutionality dates from the time of its enactment... In legal contemplation, it is as inoperative as if it had never been passed... Since an unconstitutional law is void, the general principles follow that it imposes no duties, confers no right, creates no office, bestows no power or authority on anyone, affords no protection and justifies no acts performed under it... A void act cannot be legally consistent with a valid one. An unconstitutional law cannot operate to supersede any existing law. Indeed insofar as a statute runs counter to the fundamental law of the land, (the Constitution) it is superseded thereby. No one is bound to obey an unconstitutional law and no courts are bound to enforce it.”[5]

      Any Sheriff unable to understand and enforce “The General Rule” violates his oath of office and wars against God and We the People. For the Sherriff to correct this error there are only two choices (1)study and show thyself approved by your oath or (2) resign the office of Sheriff. It is also the duty of every Sherriff to train their Deputies in the Law of the Land. This is the very purpose of this book; to train our Sheriffs and deputies in the way they should conduct themselves and not depart from it. It has become agonizingly obvious through communicating with many Sheriffs and their deputies across the Nation, that the majority of them are not properly educated and, do not understand their oath and authority.

Law of The Land

Law – “That which is laid down, ordained, or established.”

      U.S. Constitution Article VI – “This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.”

      Law is all about the securing of unalienable rights. We do not need a PhD or BAR card to know and understand the Law. We need not yield our understanding to statutory lawyers, a/k/a BAR attorneys. The Bible tells us that lawyers reject the counsel of God, they lay upon men grievous burdens and take away the key of knowledge. So why go to them? They are the very reason our sheriffs are so ignorant of the law.

      The Bible tells us that God has written his laws in the hearts of all men. We the People can know right from wrong. We do not need legislators and lawyers to tell us. That is precisely why We the People never gave our servant legislators authority to write statutes that govern our behavior. Nor did we give judges and prosecutors the authority to indict or judge the People; that authority we reserved to ourselves via untainted Juries with the power of nullification.

      Common Law is built upon logic and reason through “maxims” and “principles.” Maxims are self-evident truths such as: “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.” “For every injury there must be a remedy” and “for there to be a crime there must be an injured party.” Principles are a state of mind that always needs to be considered such as Honor, Justice and Mercy.

      Likewise, we need not yield our trust in understanding law to BAR attorneys. Thomas Jefferson told us: “Laws are made for men of ordinary understanding and should, therefore, be construed by the ordinary rules of common sense. Their meaning is not to be sought for in metaphysical subtleties which may make anything mean everything or nothing at pleasure.”

      “The purpose of a written constitution is entirely defeated if, in interpreting it as a legal document, its provisions are manipulated and worked around so that the document means whatever the manipulators wish.” Jefferson recognized this danger and spoke out constantly for careful adherence to the Constitution as written, with changes to be made by amendment, not by tortured and twisted interpretations of the text. A rule of thumb concerning the constitutionality of any legislation or interpretation of the Constitution is to ask if the conclusion violates any of our unalienable rights and if it does its “Null and Void.”

The Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God

The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in-law and equity… –Article III, Section 2

      The Laws of nature and of nature’s God is called Natural Law or Common Law so called because the Law is common onto to all men and no one can escape its judgment which will be applied either in True Courts of Justice or on the last day. According to Black’s Law 4th edition, the key phrase “in law” means in the intendment or contemplation of the law; existing in law or by force of law. It is in fact actual, real as distinguished from implied or inferred. “Philosophically, it seems more correct to say that the word “land” means, in law, as in the vernacular, the soil ... The term “land” may be used interchangeably with “property;” it may include anything that may be classed as real estate or real property.” Law of the land lifted from Magna Carta means due process = process due and owing to all concerned, sometime called the paths of the law.

      Therein, the constitutional phrase “Law of the Land” (property) for it is God who created all things for His pleasure! And said, “The world is mine, all men are mine, all souls are mine and all gold and silver is mine.” We the People and all of creation are God’s property. God is the Lawgiver and Judge who gave us the Law of Liberty via unalienable rights thereby making us free. We the People through the Jury (grand and petit) sit as the Tribunal on the King’s (God’s) Bench to exercise the Law of the Land and no man by way of legislation or decree can take We the Peoples’ Liberty without consequence.

      Black’s Law states that the phrase “at Law” is used to point out that a thing is to be done according to the course of the common law. It is distinguished from a proceeding in equity. “Law is that which is laid down, ordained, or established.” Thomas Jefferson was a student of Lord Bolingbroke. He first began studying Bolingbroke’s writings at the age of fourteen, and he read them again at the age of twenty-three as he was preparing for a career as a lawyer. Jefferson’s Literary Commonplace Book contains more quotations from Bolingbroke than from any other author, and all historians have given Bolingbroke the credit for Jefferson’s famous phrase regarding “the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God.” In a renowned letter to Alexander Pope, Lord Bolingbroke wrote the following words which were to become the basis for Jefferson’s opening paragraph of the Declaration of Independence: “You will find that it is the modest, not the presumptuous enquirer, who makes a real, and safe progress in the discovery of divine truths. One follows nature, and nature’s God; that is, he follows God in his works, and in his word.” – Lord Bolingbroke

      Here we find a definition from the very individual that all scholars recognize as the source of Jefferson’s phrase. According to Lord Bolingbroke, the law of nature’s God is the Law which is found in God’s Word. This was the definition which was intended by Jefferson, and this was the manner in which his words were understood by our forefathers. The law of nature’s God upon which our nation was founded is nothing less than the Bible itself.

The laws of nature are most perfect and immutable; but the condition of human law is an unending succession, and there is nothing in it which can continue perpetually. Human laws are born, live, and die.” – 7 Coke, 25.

      As one might expect, the Bible is fairly clear on the subject of the supremacy of God and his law. It indicates that there is no God except the Lord God. God is the God of creation and He is the Creator of all things visible and invisible. God impressed his laws upon creation and he governs its operation accordingly. God gave his law so that people would seek after God and know what God requires of every person. Of course, the laws of God are right, perfect, and eternal. They apply over the entire globe and are written in God’s creation because God is the Creator of all the earth. These rules also apply to all people and are written within each man, woman and child because God is the Creator of all people. God also reiterated the basic elements of his rules of right and wrong in the Bible.

      The implications of this situation are straightforward. Since God created all things, he also has the right to rule them according to his laws. He rules the nations according to his laws. His laws rule the nations irrespective of whether a given nation believes in God or recognizes his laws. This does not mean that the nations are perfect nor does it mean that people who do not worship God cannot rule. Nor does it mean that God will judge lawbreakers according to our timetables of justice.

      It does mean, however, that God will not let a corrupt government rule forever.[40] God judges justly on the earth and punishes lawless leaders and nations. Nations which forget God may completely perish. Nations which honor God and try to follow his laws, however, can expect to receive his care and protection.

Legislative Law is Vested Law

      Neither the US Congress nor any State Congress has the authority to write statutes that control Peoples’ behavior. It’s up to the People to control their own behavior and if they injure someone, the common law has remedies. Vested authority in our Legislators is found in Article I. Section 8. Congress absolutely has no authority to legislate outside of Article I. Section 8. “Liberty is freedom from ‘ALL LAWS” except those prescribed by nature’s God.”

      The Real Law – “The common law is the real law, the Supreme Law of the land, the code, rules, regulations, policy, and statutes are “not the law.” Legislated statutes enforced upon the people in the name of law are a fraud. They have no authority and are without mercy. Justice without mercy is Godless and therefore repugnant to our United States Constitution. Lawmakers were given authority by the people to legislate codes, rules, regulations, and statutes which are regulations and “law” to control the behavior of bureaucrats, elected and appointed officials, municipalities and agencies. However, they were never given authority to control the behavior of the people as we read in the US Supreme court decision, “All laws, rules and practices which are repugnant to the Constitution are null and void.”

      Legislators simply do not have the authority to rule make. “Where rights secured by the Constitution are involved, there can be no rule making or legislation which would abrogate them.” God breaks down the law as follows: “The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord: And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment. And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other commandment greater than these.” Although it is a sin, punishable only by the Judge of the Universe, to break the commandment to love in your mind, words, and deeds. It does not become a crime, punishable by man, until your words and deeds are expressed in “actions” injuring another.

      Thomas Jefferson said, “I would rather be exposed to the inconveniences attending too much liberty than those attending too small a degree of it.” If one of the people exercises his free will to carry a weapon, travel in an automobile, practice law, park without depositing money in a meter, use hemp, pharmaceuticals, alcohol, vitamins, minerals or any other substance for medicinal or recreational purposes, the legislators do not have the authority to impose a fine, license or make a right a crime.

Sheriff and Statutes

     An important point that all judicial officers should know is that lawful statutes are written to govern elected, appointed and hired government servants. The United States Constitution Article 1 Section 8 empowers congress with the following power to write laws: (1) To tax and pay debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; (2) To Borrow money; (3) To make regular commerce with foreign nations, and the states; (4) To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and bankruptcy laws; (5) To coin money, and fix the standard of weights and measures; (6) To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting; (7) To establish post offices and post roads; (8) To promote the progress of science and useful arts; (9) To constitute district courts inferior to the Supreme Court; (10) To define and punish piracies; (11) To declare war; (12) To raise and support armies; (13) To provide and maintain a navy; (14) To make rules for land and naval forces; (15) To provide for calling forth the militia; (16) To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia; (17) To exercise exclusive legislation in Washington DC and forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings; (18) To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution.

      Take note – Congress was not given the power to write statutes to control the behavior of “We the People,” nor can they without violating our unalienable rights. Therefore, that power to control our own behavior belongs to each one of us and we are responsible for our own actions “to do no harm,” this is the Great American Experiment.

      The following codes, a/k/a statutes, are examples of legislation that protect the Peoples’ unalienable rights and impose fines and prison sentences upon elected and appointed servants who abuse their powers under the color of law. The Jury has the Power and Authority to change fines into restitution, and they should because currently the fines are simply used to enrich the state. They also have the Power and Authority to make the restitution or punishment greater or lesser. If the convicted is placed on probation or house arrest, they may and should be required to pay for said services.

      18 USC §241 – CONSPIRACY AGAINST RIGHTS – If two or more persons conspire to injure, oppress, threaten, or intimidate any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District in the free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege secured to him by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or because of his having so exercised the same; or if two or more persons go in disguise (police officer acting under color of law) on the highway, or on the premises of another, with intent to prevent or hinder his free exercise or enjoyment of any right or privilege so secured – They shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, they shall be fined under this title or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death.

      18 USC §242 – DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS UNDER COLOR OF LAW – Whoever, under color of any law, statute, ordinance, regulation, or custom, willfully subjects any person in any State, Territory, Commonwealth, Possession, or District to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States, or to different punishments, pains, or penalties, on account of such person being an alien, or by reason of his color, or race, than are prescribed for the punishment of citizens, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both; and if bodily injury results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include the use, attempted use, or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, explosives, or fire, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; and if death results from the acts committed in violation of this section or if such acts include kidnapping or an attempt to kidnap, aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to commit aggravated sexual abuse, or an attempt to kill, shall be fined under this title, or imprisoned for any term of years or for life, or both, or may be sentenced to death.

COLOR OF LAW – “The appearance or semblance, without the substance, of legal right.” “Misuse of power, possessed by virtue of state law and made possible only because wrongdoer is clothed with authority of state, is action taken under “color of state law.”

      18 USC §645 COURT OFFICERS GENERALLY – Whoever, being a United States marshal, clerk, receiver, referee, trustee, or other officer of a United States court, or any deputy, assistant, or employee of any such officer, retains or converts to his own use or to the use of another or after demand by the party entitled thereto, unlawfully retains any money coming into his hands by virtue of his official relation, position or employment, is guilty of embezzlement and shall, where the offense is not otherwise punishable by enactment of Congress, be fined under this title or not more than double the value of the money so embezzled, whichever is greater, or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; but if the amount embezzled does not exceed $1,000, he shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both. It shall not be a defense that the accused person had any interest in such moneys or fund.

      18 USC §654 OFFICER OR EMPLOYEE OF UNITED STATES CONVERTING PROPERTY OF ANOTHER – Whoever, being an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, embezzles or wrongfully converts to his own use the money or property of another which comes into his possession or under his control in the execution of such office or employment, or under color or claim of authority as such officer or employee, shall be fined under this title or not more than the value of the money and property thus embezzled or converted, whichever is greater, or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both; but if the sum embezzled is $1,000 or less, he shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

      18 USC §872 EXTORTION BY OFFICERS OR EMPLOYEES OF THE UNITED STATES – Whoever, being an officer, or employee of the United States or any department or agency thereof, or representing himself to be or assuming to act as such, under color or pretense of office or employment commits or attempts an act of extortion, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both; but if the amount so extorted or demanded does not exceed $1,000, he shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

      18 USC §1001 STATEMENTS OR ENTRIES GENERALLY – (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, whoever, in any matter within the jurisdiction of the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of the Government of the United States, knowingly and willfully (1) falsifies, conceals, or covers up by any trick, scheme, or device a material fact; (2) makes any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or representation; or (3) makes or uses any false writing or document knowing the same to contain any materially false, fictitious, or fraudulent statement or entry; shall be fined under this title, imprisoned not more than 5 years or, if the offense involves international or domestic terrorism (as defined in section 2331), imprisoned not more than 8 years, or both. If the matter relates to an offense under chapter 109A, 109B, 110, or 117, or section 1591, then the term of imprisonment imposed under this section shall be not more than 8 years.

      18 USC §1503 INFLUENCING OR INJURING OFFICER OR JUROR GENERALLY – (a) Whoever corruptly, or by threats or force, or by any threatening letter or communication, endeavors to influence, intimidate, or impede any grand or petit juror, or officer in or of any court of the United States, or officer who may be serving at any examination or other proceeding before any United States magistrate judge or other committing magistrate, in the discharge of his duty, or injures any such grand or petit juror in his person or property on account of any verdict or indictment assented to by him, or on account of his being or having been such juror, or injures any such officer, magistrate judge, or other committing magistrate in his person or property on account of the performance of his official duties, or corruptly or by threats or force, or by any threatening letter or communication, influences, obstructs, or impedes, or endeavors to influence, obstruct, or impede, the due administration of justice, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b). If the offense under this section occurs in connection with a trial of a criminal case, and the act in violation of this section involves the threat of physical force or physical force, the maximum term of imprisonment which may be imposed for the offense shall be the higher of that otherwise provided by law or the maximum term that could have been imposed for any offense charged in such case.

      18 USC §1512B ENGAGES IN MISLEADING CONDUCT – (b) Whoever knowingly uses intimidation, threatens, or corruptly persuades another person, or attempts to do so, or engages in misleading conduct toward another person, with intent to – (1) influence, delay, or prevent the testimony of any person in an official proceeding; (2) cause or induce any person to – (A) withhold testimony, or withhold a record, document, or other object, from an official proceeding; (B) alter, destroy, mutilate, or conceal an object with intent to impair the object’s integrity or availability for use in an official proceeding; (C) evade legal process summoning that person to appear as a witness, or to produce a record, document, or other object, in an official proceeding; or (D) be absent from an official proceeding to which such person has been summoned by legal process; or (3) hinder, delay, or prevent the communication to a law enforcement officer or judge of the United States of information relating to the commission or possible commission of a Federal offense or a violation of conditions of probation [1] supervised release, [1] parole, or release pending judicial proceedings; shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 20 years, or both.

      18 USC §2071 CONCEALMENT, REMOVAL, OR MUTILATION GENERALLY – (a) Whoever willfully and unlawfully conceals, removes, mutilates, obliterates, or destroys, or attempts to do so, or, with intent to do so takes and carries away any record, proceeding, map, book, paper, document, or other thing, filed or deposited with any clerk or officer of any court of the United States, or in any public office, or with any judicial or public officer of the United States, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both. (b) Whoever, having the custody of any such record, proceeding, map, book, document, paper, or other thing, willfully and unlawfully conceals, removes, mutilates, obliterates, falsifies, or destroys the same, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than three years, or both; and shall forfeit his office and be disqualified from holding any office under the United States. As used in this subsection, the term “office” does not include the office held by any person as a retired officer of the Armed Forces of the United States.

      18 USC §2076 CLERK IS TO FILE – Whoever, being a clerk of a district court of the United States, willfully refuses or neglects to make or forward any report, certificate, statement, or document as required by law, shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

      26 USC §7214 OFFENSES BY OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES OF THE UNITED STATES – (a) Unlawful acts of revenue officers or agents Any officer or employee of the United States acting in connection with any revenue law of the United States – (1) who is guilty of any extortion or willful oppression under color of law; or (2) who knowingly demands other or greater sums than are authorized by law, or receives any fee, compensation, or reward, except as by law prescribed, for the performance of any duty; ... shall be dismissed from office or discharged from employment and, upon conviction thereof, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both. The court may in its discretion award out of the fine so imposed an amount, not in excess of one-half thereof, for the use of the informer, if any, who shall be ascertained by the judgment of the court. The court also shall render judgment against the said officer or employee for the amount of damages sustained in favor of the party injured, to be collected by execution. ...

      42 USC §1983 CIVIL ACTION FOR DEPRIVATION OF RIGHTS – Every person who, under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage, of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, subjects, or causes to be subjected, any citizen of the United States or other person within the jurisdiction thereof to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws, shall be liable to the party injured in an action at law, suit in equity, or other proper proceeding for redress, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer’s judicial capacity, injunctive relief shall not be granted unless a declaratory decree was violated or declaratory relief was unavailable. For the purposes of this section, any Act of Congress applicable exclusively to the District of Columbia shall be considered to be a statute of the District of Columbia.

      42 USC §1985(3) CONSPIRACY TO INTERFERE WITH CIVIL RIGHTS – Depriving persons of rights or privileges: If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire or go in disguise on the highway or on the premises of another, for the purpose of depriving, either directly or indirectly, any person or class of persons of the equal protection of the laws, or of equal privileges and immunities under the laws; or for the purpose of preventing or hindering the constituted authorities of any State or Territory from giving or securing to all persons within such State or Territory the equal protection of the laws; or if two or more persons conspire to prevent by force, intimidation, or threat, any citizen who is lawfully entitled to vote, from giving his support or advocacy in a legal manner, toward or in favor of the election of any lawfully qualified person as an elector for President or Vice President, or as a Member of Congress of the United States; or to injure any citizen in person or property on account of such support or advocacy; in any case of conspiracy set forth in this section, if one or more persons engaged therein do, or cause to be done, any act in furtherance of the object of such conspiracy, whereby another is injured in his person or property, or deprived of having and exercising any right or privilege of a citizen of the United States, the party so injured or deprived may have an action for the recovery of damages occasioned by such injury or deprivation, against any one or more of the conspirators.

      42 USC §1986 ACTION FOR NEGLECT TO PREVENT – Every person who, having knowledge that any of the wrongs conspired to be done, and mentioned in section 1985 of this title, are about to be committed, and having power to prevent or aid in preventing the commission of the same, neglects or refuses so to do, if such wrongful act be committed, shall be liable to the party injured, or his legal representatives, for all damages caused by such wrongful act, which such person by reasonable diligence could have prevented; and such damages may be recovered in an action on the case; and any number of persons guilty of such wrongful neglect or refusal may be joined as defendants in the action; and if the death of any party be caused by any such wrongful act and neglect, the legal representatives of the deceased shall have such action therefor, and may recover not exceeding $5,000 damages therein, for the benefit of the widow of the deceased, if there be one, and if there be no widow, then for the benefit of the next of kin of the deceased. But no action under the provisions of this section shall be sustained which is not commenced within one year after the cause of action has accrued.

      OATH –Any form of attestation by which a person signifies that he is bound in conscience to perform an act faithfully and truthfully.”[50]A solemn appeal to the Supreme Being in attestation of the truth of some statement.” “An external pledge or asseveration, made in verification of statements made, or to be made, coupled with an appeal to a sacred or venerated object, in evidence of the serious and reverent state of mind of the party, or with an invocation to a supreme being to witness the words of the party, and to visit him with punishment if they be false.”

      POLITICAL – “Pertaining to the exercise of the functions vested in those charged with the conduct of government; relating to the management of affairs of state; as political theories; of or pertaining to exercise of rights and privileges or the influence by which individuals of a state seek to determine or control its public policy; having to do with organization or action of individuals, parties, or interests that seek to control appointment or action of those who manage affairs of a state.[53]

      POLITICS –The science of government; the art or practice of administering public affairs.” Unfortunately empty campaign promises along with exaggeration and lies launched against ones political opponent seems to have robbed the said term of its true meaning and when compounded by the “so called news” media has made it impossible for the general public to discern the truth. This is why our government is occupied by mostly sleazy lawless servants who act as our masters and abuse the People, not unlike the King of Great Britain in 1776.